ा Popular online ↏ Why Buddhism is True: The Science and Philosophy of Meditation and Enlightenment (English Edition) torent २ Book By Robert Wright ণ ा Popular online ↏ Why Buddhism is True: The Science and Philosophy of Meditation and Enlightenment (English Edition) torent २ Book By Robert Wright ণ Why Buddhism is True 1 Taking the Red Pill At the risk of overdramatizing the human condition Have you ever seen the movie The Matrix Its about a guy named Neo played by Keanu Reeves , who discovers that hes been inhabiting a dream world The life he thought he was living is actually an elaborate hallucination Hes having that hallucination while, unbeknownst to him, his actual physical body is inside a gooey, coffin size podone among many pods, rows and rows of pods, each pod containing a human being absorbed in a dream These people have been put in their pods by robot overlords and given dream lives as pacifiers The choice faced by Neoto keep living a delusion or wake up to realityis famously captured in the movies red pill scene Neo has been contacted by rebels who have entered his dream or, strictly speaking, whose avatars have entered his dream Their leader, Morpheus played by Laurence Fishburne , explains the situation to Neo You are a slave, Neo Like everyone else, you were born into bondage, into a prison that you cannot taste or see or toucha prison for your mind The prison is called the Matrix, but theres no way to explain to Neo what the Matrix ultimately is The only way to get the whole picture, says Morpheus, is to see it for yourself He offers Neo two pills, a red one and a blue one Neo can take the blue pill and return to his dream world, or take the red pill and break through the shroud of delusion Neo chooses the red pill Thats a pretty stark choice a life of delusion and bondage or a life of insight and freedom In fact, its a choice so dramatic that youd think a Hollywood movie is exactly where it belongsthat the choices we really get to make about how to live our lives are less momentous than this, pedestrian Yet when that movie came out, a number of people saw it as mirroring a choice they had actually made The people Im thinking about are what you might call Western Buddhists, people in the United States and other Western countries who, for the most part, didnt grow up Buddhist but at some point adopted Buddhism At least they adopted a version of Buddhism, a version that had been stripped of some supernatural elements typically found in Asian Buddhism, such as belief in reincarnation and in various deities This Western Buddhism centers on a part of Buddhist practice that in Asia is common among monks than among laypeople meditation, along with immersion in Buddhist philosophy Two of the most common Western conceptions of Buddhismthat its atheistic and that it revolves around meditationare wrong most Asian Buddhists do believe in gods, though not an omnipotent creator God, and dont meditate These Western Buddhists, long before they watched The Matrix, had become convinced that the world as they had once seen it was a kind of illusionnot an out and out hallucination but a seriously warped picture of reality that in turn warped their approach to life, with bad consequences for them and the people around them Now they felt that, thanks to meditation and Buddhist philosophy, they were seeing things clearly Among these people, The Matrix seemed an apt allegory of the transition theyd undergone, and so became known as a dharma movie The word dharma has several meanings, including the Buddhas teachings and the path that Buddhists should tread in response to those teachings In the wake of The Matrix, a new shorthand for I follow the dharma came into currency I took the red pill I saw The Matrix in 1999, right after it came out, and some months later I learned that I had a kind of connection to it The movies directors, the Wachowski siblings, had given Keanu Reeves three books to read in preparation for playing Neo One of them was a book I had written a few years earlier, The Moral Animal Evolutionary Psychology and Everyday Life Im not sure what kind of link the directors saw between my book and The Matrix But I know what kind of link I see Evolutionary psychology can be described in various ways, and heres one way I had described it in my book It is the study of how the human brain was designedby natural selectionto mislead us, even enslave us Dont get me wrong natural selection has its virtues, and Id rather be created by it than not be created at allwhich, so far as I can tell, are the two options this universe offers Being a product of evolution is by no means entirely a story of enslavement and delusion Our evolved brains empower us in many ways, and they often bless us with a basically accurate view of reality Still, ultimately, natural selection cares about only one thing or, I should say, caresin quotesabout only one thing, since natural selection is just a blind process, not a conscious designer And that one thing is getting genes into the next generation Genetically based traits that in the past contributed to genetic proliferation have flourished, while traits that didnt have fallen by the wayside And the traits that have survived this test include mental traitsstructures and algorithms that are built into the brain and shape our everyday experience So if you ask the question What kinds of perceptions and thoughts and feelings guide us through life each day the answer, at the most basic level, isnt The kinds of thoughts and feelings and perceptions that give us an accurate picture of reality No, at the most basic level the answer is The kinds of thoughts and feelings and perceptions that helped our ancestors get genes into the next generation Whether those thoughts and feelings and perceptions give us a true view of reality is, strictly speaking, beside the point As a result, they sometimes dont Our brains are designed to, among other things, delude us Not that theres anything wrong with that Some of my happiest moments have come from delusionbelieving, for example, that the Tooth Fairy would pay me a visit after I lost a tooth But delusion can also produce bad moments And I dont just mean moments that, in retrospect, are obviously delusional, like horrible nightmares I also mean moments that you might not think of as delusional, such as lying awake at night with anxiety Or feeling hopeless, even depressed, for days on end Or feeling bursts of hatred toward people, bursts that may actually feel good for a moment but slowly corrode your character Or feeling bursts of hatred toward yourself Or feeling greedy, feeling a compulsion to buy things or eat things or drink things well beyond the point where your well being is served Though these feelingsanxiety, despair, hatred, greedarent delusional the way a nightmare is delusional, if you examine them closely, youll see that they have elements of delusion, elements youd be better off without And if you think you would be better off, imagine how the whole world would be After all, feelings like despair and hatred and greed can foster wars and atrocities So if what Im saying is trueif these basic sources of human suffering and human cruelty are indeed in large part the product of delusionthere is value in exposing this delusion to the light Sounds logical, right But heres a problem that I started to appreciate shortly after I wrote my book about evolutionary psychology the exact value of exposing a delusion to the light depends on what kind of light youre talking about Sometimes understanding the ultimate source of your suffering doesnt, by itself, help very much An Everyday Delusion Lets take a simple but fundamental example eating some junk food, feeling briefly satisfied, and then, only minutes later, feeling a kind of crash and maybe a hunger for junk food This is a good example to start with for two reasons First, it illustrates how subtle our delusions can be Theres no point in the course of eating a six pack of small powdered sugar doughnuts when youre believing that youre the messiah or that foreign agents are conspiring to assassinate you And thats true of many sources of delusion that Ill discuss in this book theyre about illusionabout things not being quite what they seemthan about delusion in the dramatic sense of that word Still, by the end of the book, Ill have argued that all of these illusions do add up to a very large scale warping of reality, a disorientation that is as significant and consequential as out and out delusion The second reason junk food is a good example to start with is that its fundamental to the Buddhas teachings Okay, it cant be literally fundamental to the Buddhas teachings, because 2,500 years ago, when the Buddha taught, junk food as we know it didnt exist Whats fundamental to the Buddhas teachings is the general dynamic of being powerfully drawn to sensory pleasure that winds up being fleeting at best One of the Buddhas main messages was that the pleasures we seek evaporate quickly and leave us thirsting for We spend our time looking for the next gratifying thingthe next powdered sugar doughnut, the next sexual encounter, the next status enhancing promotion, the next online purchase But the thrill always fades, and it always leaves us wanting The old Rolling Stones lyric I cant get no satisfaction is, according to Buddhism, the human condition Indeed, though the Buddha is famous for asserting that life is pervaded by suffering, some scholars say thats an incomplete rendering of his message and that the word translated as suffering, dukkha, could, for some purposes, be translated as unsatisfactoriness So what exactly is the illusory part of pursuing doughnuts or sex or consumer goods or a promotion There are different illusions associated with different pursuits, but for now we can focus on one illusion thats common to these things the overestimation of how much happiness theyll bring Again, by itself this is delusional only in a subtle sense If I asked you whether you thought that getting that next promotion, or getting an A on that next exam, or eating that next powdered sugar doughnut would bring you eternal bliss, youd say no, obviously not On the other hand, we do often pursue such things with, at the very least, an unbalanced view of the future We spend time envisioning the perks that a promotion will bring than envisioning the headaches it will bring And there may be an unspoken sense that once weve achieved this long sought goal, once weve reached the summit, well be able to relax, or at least things will be enduringly better Similarly, when we see that doughnut sitting there, we immediately imagine how good it tastes, not how intensely well want another doughnut only moments after eating it, or how well feel a bit tired or agitated later, when the sugar rush subsides Why Pleasure Fades It doesnt take a rocket scientist to explain why this sort of distortion would be built into human anticipation It just takes an evolutionary biologistor, for that matter, anyone willing to spend a little time thinking about how evolution works Heres the basic logic We were designed by natural selection to do certain things that helped our ancestors get their genes into the next generationthings like eating, having sex, earning the esteem of other people, and outdoing rivals I put designed in quotation marks because, again, natural selection isnt a conscious, intelligent designer but an unconscious process Still, natural selection does create organisms that look as if theyre the product of a conscious designer, a designer who kept fiddling with them to make them effective gene propagators So, as a kind of thought experiment, its legitimate to think of natural selection as a designer and put yourself in its shoes and ask If you were designing organisms to be good at spreading their genes, how would you get them to pursue the goals that further this cause In other words, granted that eating, having sex, impressing peers, and besting rivals helped our ancestors spread their genes, how exactly would you design their brains to get them to pursue these goals I submit that at least three basic principles of design would make sense 1.Achieving these goals should bring pleasure, since animals, including humans, tend to pursue things that bring pleasure 2.The pleasure shouldnt last forever After all, if the pleasure didnt subside, wed never seek it again our first meal would be our last, because hunger would never return So too with sex a single act of intercourse, and then a lifetime of lying there basking in the afterglow Thats no way to get lots of genes into the next generation 3.The animals brain should focus on 1 , the fact that pleasure will accompany the reaching of a goal, than on 2 , the fact that the pleasure will dissipate shortly thereafter After all, if you focus on 1 , youll pursue things like food and sex and social status with unalloyed gusto, whereas if you focus on 2 , you could start feeling ambivalence You might, for example, start asking what the point is of so fiercely pursuing pleasure if the pleasure will wear off shortly after you get it and leave you hungering for Before you know it, youll be full of ennui and wishing youd majored in philosophy If you put these three principles of design together, you get a pretty plausible explanation of the human predicament as diagnosed by the Buddha Yes, as he said, pleasure is fleeting, and, yes, this leaves us recurrently dissatisfied And the reason is that pleasure is designed by natural selection to evaporate so that the ensuing dissatisfaction will get us to pursue pleasure Natural selection doesnt want us to be happy, after all it just wants us to be productive, in its narrow sense of productive And the way to make us productive is to make the anticipation of pleasure very strong but the pleasure itself not very long lasting Scientists can watch this logic play out at the biochemical level by observing dopamine, a neurotransmitter that is correlated with pleasure and the anticipation of pleasure In one seminal study, they took monkeys and monitored dopamine generating neurons as drops of sweet juice fell onto the monkeys tongues Predictably, dopamine was released right after the juice touched the tongue But then the monkeys were trained to expect drops of juice after a light turned on As the trials proceeded, and of the dopamine came when the light turned on, and less and less came after the juice hit the tongue We have no way of knowing for sure what it felt like to be one of those monkeys, but it would seem that, as time passed, there was in the way of anticipating the pleasure that would come from the sweetness, yet less in the way of pleasure actually coming from the sweetness.I, To translate this conjecture into everyday human terms If you encounter a new kind of pleasureif, say, youve somehow gone your whole life without eating a powdered sugar doughnut, and somebody hands you one and suggests you try ityoull get a big blast of dopamine after the taste of the doughnut sinks in But later, once youre a confirmed powdered sugar doughnut eater, the lions share of the dopamine spike comes before you actually bite into the doughnut, as youre staring longingly at it the amount that comes after the bite is much less than the amount you got after that first, blissful bite into a powdered sugar doughnut The pre bite dopamine blast youre now getting is the promise of bliss, and the post bite drop in dopamine is, in a way, the breaking of the promiseor, at least, its a kind of biochemical acknowledgment that there was some overpromising To the extent that you bought the promiseanticipated greater pleasure than would be delivered by the consumption itselfyou have been, if not deluded in the strong sense of that term, at least misled Kind of cruel, in a waybut what do you expect from natural selection Its job is to build machines that spread genes, and if that means programming some measure of illusion into the machines, then illusion there will be Unhelpful Insights So this is one kind of light science can shed on an illusion Call it Darwinian light By looking at things from the point of view of natural selection, we see why the illusion would be built into us, and we have reason than ever to see that it is an illusion Butand this is the main point of this little digressionthis kind of light is of limited value if your goal is to actually liberate yourself from the illusion Dont believe me Try this simple experiment 1 Reflect on the fact that our lust for doughnuts and other sweet things is a kind of illusionthat the lust implicitly promises enduring pleasure than will result from succumbing to it, while blinding us to the letdown that may ensue 2 As youre reflecting on this fact, hold a powdered sugar doughnut six inches from your face Do you feel the lust for it magically weakening Not if youre like me, no This is what I discovered after immersing myself in evolutionary psychology knowing the truth about your situation, at least in the form that evolutionary psychology provides it, doesnt necessarily make your life any better In fact, it can actually make it worse Youre still stuck in the natural human cycle of ultimately futile pleasure seekingwhat psychologists sometimes call the hedonic treadmillbut now you have new reason to see the absurdity of it In other words, now you see that its a treadmill, a treadmill specifically designed to keep you running, often without really getting anywhereyet you keep running And powdered sugar doughnuts are just the tip of the iceberg I mean, the truth is, its not all that uncomfortable to be aware of the Darwinian logic behind your lack of dietary self discipline In fact, you may find in this logic a comforting excuse its hard to fight Mother Nature, right But evolutionary psychology also made me aware of how illusion shapes other kinds of behavior, such as the way I treat other people and the way I, in various senses, treat myself In these realms, Darwinian self consciousness was sometimes very uncomfortable Yongey Mingyur Rinpoche, a meditation teacher in the Tibetan Buddhist tradition, has said, Ultimately, happiness comes down to choosing between the discomfort of becoming aware of your mental afflictions and the discomfort of being ruled by them What he meant is that if you want to liberate yourself from the parts of the mind that keep you from realizing true happiness, you have to first become aware of them, which can be unpleasant Okay, fine thats a form of painful self consciousness that would be worthwhilethe kind that leads ultimately to deep happiness But the kind I got from evolutionary psychology was the worst of both worlds the painful self consciousness without the deep happiness I had both the discomfort of being aware of my mental afflictions and the discomfort of being ruled by them Jesus said, I am the way and the truth and the life Well, with evolutionary psychology I felt I had found the truth But, manifestly, I had not found the way Which was enough to make me wonder about another thing Jesus said that the truth will set you free I felt I had seen the basic truth about human nature, and I saw clearly than ever how various illusions imprisoned me, but this truth wasnt amounting to a Get Out of Jail Free card So is there another version of the truth out there that would set me free No, I dont think so At least, I dont think theres an alternative to the truth presented by science natural selection, like it or not, is the process that created us But some years after writing The Moral Animal, I did start to wonder if there was a way to operationalize the trutha way to put the actual, scientific truth about human nature and the human condition into a form that would not just identify and explain the illusions we labor under but would also help us liberate ourselves from them I started wondering if this Western Buddhism I was hearing about might be that way Maybe many of the Buddhas teachings were saying essentially the same thing modern psychological science says And maybe meditation was in large part a different way of appreciating these truthsand, in addition, a way of actually doing something about them So in August 2003 I headed to rural Massachusetts for my first silent meditation retreata whole week devoted to meditation and devoid of such distractions as email, news from the outside world, and speaking to other human beings The Truth about Mindfulness You could be excused for doubting that a retreat like this would yield anything very dramatic or profound The retreat was, broadly speaking, in the tradition of mindfulness meditation, the kind of meditation that was starting to catch on in the West and that in the years since has gone mainstream As commonly described, mindfulnessthe thing mindfulness meditation aims to cultivateisnt very deep or exotic To live mindfully is to pay attention to, to be mindful of whats happening in the here and now and to experience it in a clear, direct way, unclouded by various mental obfuscations Stop and smell the roses This is an accurate description of mindfulness as far as it goes But it doesnt go very far Mindfulness, as popularly conceived, is just the beginning of mindfulness And its in some ways a misleading beginning If you delve into ancient Buddhist writings, you wont find a lot of exhortations to stop and smell the rosesand thats true even if you focus on those writings that feature the word sati, the word thats translated as mindfulness Indeed, sometimes these writings seem to carry a very different message The ancient Buddhist text known as The Four Foundations of Mindfulnessthe closest thing there is to a Bible of Mindfulnessreminds us that our bodies are full of various kinds of unclean things and instructs us to meditate on such bodily ingredients as feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, skin oil, saliva, mucus, fluid in the joints, urine It also calls for us to imagine our bodies one day, two days, three days deadbloated, livid, and festering Im not aware of any bestselling books on mindfulness meditation called Stop and Smell the Feces And Ive never heard a meditation teacher recommend that I meditate on my bile, phlegm, and pus or on the rotting corpse that I will someday be What is presented today as an ancient meditative tradition is actually a selective rendering of an ancient meditative tradition, in some cases carefully manicured Theres no scandal here Theres nothing wrong with modern interpreters of Buddhism being selectiveeven, sometimes, creativein what they present as Buddhism All spiritual traditions evolve, adapting to time and place, and the Buddhist teachings that find an audience today in the United States and Europe are a product of such evolution The main thing, for our purposes, is that this evolutionthe evolution that has produced a distinctively Western, twenty first century version of Buddhismhasnt severed the connection between current practice and ancient thought Modern mindfulness meditation isnt exactly the same as ancient mindfulness meditation, but the two share a common philosophical foundation If you follow the underlying logic of either of them far enough, you will find a dramatic claim that we are, metaphorically speaking, living in the Matrix However mundane mindfulness meditation may sometimes sound, it is a practice that, if pursued rigorously, can let you see what Morpheus says the red pill will let you see Namely, how deep the rabbit hole goes On that first meditation retreat, I had some pretty powerful experiencespowerful enough to make me want to see just how deep the rabbit hole goes So I read about Buddhist philosophy, and talked to experts on Buddhism, and eventually went on meditation retreats, and established a daily meditation practice All of this made it clearer to me why The Matrix had come to be known as a dharma movie Though evolutionary psychology had already convinced me that people are by nature pretty deluded, Buddhism, it turned out, painted an even dramatic picture In the Buddhist view, the delusion touches everyday perceptions and thoughts in ways subtler and pervasive than I had imagined And in ways that made sense to me In other words, this kind of delusion, it seemed to me, could be explained as the natural product of a brain that had been engineered by natural selection The I looked into Buddhism, the radical it seemed, but the I examined it in the light of modern psychology, the plausible it seemed The real life Matrix, the one in which were actually embedded, came to seem like the one in the movienot quite as mind bending, maybe, but profoundly deceiving and ultimately oppressive, and something that humanity urgently needs to escape The good news is the other thing I came to believe if you want to escape from the Matrix, Buddhist practice and philosophy offer powerful hope Buddhism isnt alone in this promise There are other spiritual traditions that address the human predicament with insight and wisdom But Buddhist meditation, along with its underlying philosophy, addresses that predicament in a strikingly direct and comprehensive way Buddhism offers an explicit diagnosis of the problem and a cure And the cure, when it works, brings not just happiness but clarity of vision the actual truth about things, or at least something way, way closer to that than our everyday view of them Some people who have taken up meditation in recent years have done so for essentially therapeutic reasons They practice mindfulness based stress reduction or focus on some specific personal problem They may have no idea that the kind of meditation theyre practicing can be a deeply spiritual endeavor and can transform their view of the world They are, without knowing it, near the threshold of a basic choice, a choice that only they can make As Morpheus says to Neo, I can only show you the door Youre the one that has to walk through it This book is an attempt to show people the door, give them some idea of what lies beyond it, and explain, from a scientific standpoint, why what lies beyond it has a stronger claim to being real than the world theyre familiar with I.This and all subsequent daggers refer to elaborative notes that can be found in the Notes section at the end of the book.A sublime achievement Adam Gopnik, The New YorkerProvocative, informativeanddeeply rewarding I found myself not just agreeing with but applauding the author The New York Times Book ReviewThis is exactly the book that so many of us are looking for Writing with his characteristic wit, brilliance, and tenderhearted skepticism, Robert Wright tells us everything we need to know about the science, practice, and powerof Buddhism Susan Cain, bestselling author of QuietI have been waiting all my life for a readable, lucid explanation of Buddhism by a tough minded, skeptical intellect Here it is This is a scientific and spiritual voyage unlike any I have taken before Martin Seligman, professor of psychology at the University of Pennsylvania and bestselling author of Authentic HappinessA fantastically rational introduction to meditation It constantly made me smile a little, and occasionally chuckle A wry, self deprecating, and brutally empirical guide to the avoidance of suffering Andrew Sullivan, New York Magazine A superb, level headed new book Oliver Burkeman, The GuardianRobert Wright brings his sharp wit and love of analysis to good purpose, making a compelling case for the nuts and bolts of how meditation actually works This book will be useful for all of us, from experienced meditators to hardened skeptics who are wondering what all the fuss is about Sharon Salzberg, cofounder of the Insight Meditation Society and bestselling author of Real HappinessWhat happens when someone steeped in evolutionary psychology takes a cool look at Buddhism If that person is, like Robert Wright, a gifted writer, the answer is this surprising, enjoyable, challenging, and potentially life changing book Peter Singer, professor of philosophy at Princeton University and author of Ethics in the Real WorldDelightfully personal, yet broadly important NPRRendered in a down to earth and highly readable style, with witty quips and self effacing humility that give the book its distinctive appeal and persuasive power America Magazine Why Buddhism Is True Explores Links Between NPR Aug , Science journalist and author Robert Wright says that Buddhist enlightenment might help counteract our natural tendency towards unhappiness His new book is Why The Philosophy of Meditation Enlightenment Paperback May by Wikipedia a evolutionary psychologist As August the had peaked at New York Times No bestseller in hardcover nonfiction Content In has ratings reviews Darwinu said problem with introspection it no end Philip K Dick For Reasons for Spiritual But Not Religious those who think themselves as spiritual but not religious can find lot to them on their personal path, however they define difference meditation very essence Buddhism, just practice rarified elite mystics important Quora This second reason why me It appeals an analytical rational mind After I finished my education, found myself working rather high stress environment advertising agency ditched Slate Magazine Feb may explain some masters have behaved like nihilists than saints Chogyam Trungpa, helped introduce Tibetan United States s, was promiscuous combination psychology, philosophy, astute readings tradition, meditative experience absolutely unique clarifying Jonathan Gold, professor religion Princeton University Dharma s Gatekeepers true Vox One reasons people meditating, one are attracted because path dissolution self or What what do Buddhists believe Question What believe Ultimately, be rejected Recommended Resource Jesus Among Other gods Ravi Zacharias More insights from your Bible study Get Started Logos Software Free Afrikaans, BBC Religion Ethics so hip Dr Andrew Skilton explores appeal looking its history Britain many Westerners drawn side steps God Assessing Value Individuals When you purchase independently reviewed through site, we earn affiliate commission WHY BUDDHISM IS TRUE By Are There Good Convert Buddhism give good convert most Asian traditions During roughly millennia history, shown flexible approachThe Evolution this sweeping narrative takes us Stone Age Information Age, unveils astonishing discovery there hidden pattern great monotheistic faiths followed evolved Bloggingheads Redemption essays MeToo men Phoebe Maltz Bovy Kat Rosenfield analyze whether recent Jian Ghomeshi John Hockenberry should been published Robert Wright, Instructor Coursera author, recently, other books include God, which finalist Hat Design Cline Chapeaux Chapeaux, Millinery between Fashion Art, mixing Sculpture Couture A familial tradition since Manufacturing made 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