Ư write easy reader ⌅ Cooked: A Natural History of Transformation  ქ Ebook Author Michael Pollan ᅍ Ư write easy reader ⌅ Cooked: A Natural History of Transformation ქ Ebook Author Michael Pollan ᅍ INTRODUCTIONWHY COOK I.At a certain point in the late middle of my life I made the unexpected but happy discovery that the answer to several of the questions that most occupied me was in fact one and the same.Cook.Some of these questions were personal For example, what was the single most important thing we could do as a family to improve our health and general well being And then what would be a good way to better connect to my teenage son As it turned out, this involved not only ordinary cooking but also the specialized form of it known as brewing Other questions were slightly political in nature For years I had been trying to determine because I am often asked what is the most important thing an ordinary person can do to help reform the American food system, to make it healthier and sustainable Another related question is, how can people living in a highly specialized consumer economy reduce their sense of dependence and achieve a greater degree of self sufficiency And then there were the philosophical questions, the ones Ive been chewing on since I first started writing books How, in our everyday lives, can we acquire a deeper understanding of the natural world and our species peculiar role in it You can always go to the woods to confront such questions, but I discovered that even interesting answers could be had simply by going to the kitchen.I would not, as I said, ever have expected it Cooking has always been a part of my life, but like the furniture than an object of scrutiny, much less a passion I counted myself lucky to have a parentmy motherwho loved to cook and almost every night made us a delicious meal By the time I had a place of my own, I could find my way around a kitchen well enough, the result of nothing purposeful than all those hours spent hanging around the kitchen while my mother fixed dinner And though once I had my own place I cooked whenever I had the time, I seldom made time for cooking or gave it much consideration My kitchen skills, such as they were, were pretty much frozen in place by the time I turned thirty Truth be told, my most successful dishes leaned heavily on the cooking of others, as when I drizzled my incredible sage butter sauce over store bought ravioli Every now and then Id look at a cookbook or clip a recipe from the newspaper to add a new dish to my tiny repertoire, or Id buy a new kitchen gadget, though most of these eventually ended up in a closet.In retrospect, the mildness of my interest in cooking surprises me, since my interest in every other link of the food chain had been so keen Ive been a gardener since I was eight, growing mostly vegetables, and Ive always enjoyed being on farms and writing about agriculture Ive also written a fair amount about the opposite end of the food chainthe eating end, I mean, and the implications of our eating for our health But to the middle links of the food chain, where the stuff of nature gets transformed into the things we eat and drink, I hadnt really given much thought.Until, that is, I began trying to unpack a curious paradox I had noticed while watching television, which was simply this How is it that at the precise historical moment when Americans were abandoning the kitchen, handing over the preparation of most of our meals to the food industry, we began spending so much of our time thinking about food and watching other people cook it on television The less cooking we were doing in our own lives, it seemed, the that food and its vicarious preparation fascinated us.Our culture seems to be of at least two minds on this subject Survey research confirms were cooking less and buying prepared meals every year The amount of time spent preparing meals in American households has fallen by half since the mid sixties, when I was watching my mom fix dinner, to a scant twenty seven minutes a day Americans spend less time cooking than people in any other nation, but the general downward trend is global And yet at the same time were talking about cooking and watching cooking, and reading about cooking, and going to restaurants designed so that we can watch the work performed live We live in an age when professional cooks are household names, some of them as famous as athletes or movie stars The very same activity that many people regard as a form of drudgery has somehow been elevated to a popular spectator sport When you consider that twenty seven minutes is less time than it takes to watch a single episode of Top Chef or The Next Food Network Star, you realize that there are now millions of people who spend time watching food being cooked on television than they spend actually cooking it themselves I dont need to point out that the food you watch being cooked on television is not food you get to eat.This is peculiar After all, were not watching shows or reading books about sewing or darning socks or changing the oil in our car, three other domestic chores that we have been only too happy to outsourceand then promptly drop from conscious awareness But cooking somehow feels different The work, or the process, retains an emotional or psychological power we cant quite shake, or dont want to And in fact it was after a long bout of watching cooking programs on television that I began to wonder if this activity I had always taken for granted might be worth taking a little seriously.I developed a few theories to explain what I came to think of as the Cooking Paradox The first and most obvious is that watching other people cook is not exactly a new behavior for us humans Even when everyone still cooked, there were plenty of us who mainly watched men for the most part, and children Most of us have happy memories of watching our mothers in the kitchen, performing feats that sometimes looked very much like sorcery and typically resulted in something tasty to eat In ancient Greece, the word for cook, butcher, and priest was the same mageirosand the word shares an etymological root with magic I would watch, rapt, when my mother conjured her most magical dishes, like the tightly wrapped packages of fried chicken Kiev that, when cut open with a sharp knife, liberated a pool of melted butter and an aromatic gust of herbs But watching an everyday pan of eggs get scrambled was nearly as riveting a spectacle, as the slimy yellow goop suddenly leapt into the form of savory gold nuggets Even the most ordinary dish follows a satisfying arc of transformation, magically becoming something than the sum of its ordinary parts And in almost every dish, you can find, besides the culinary ingredients, the ingredients of a story a beginning, a middle, and an end.Then there are the cooks themselves, the heroes who drive these little dramas of transformation Even as it vanishes from our daily lives, were drawn to the rhythms and textures of the work cooks do, which seems so much direct and satisfying than the abstract and formless tasks most of us perform in our jobs these days Cooks get to put their hands on real stuff, not just keyboards and screens but fundamental things like plants and animals and fungi They get to work with the primal elements, too, fire and water, earth and air, using themmastering them to perform their tasty alchemies How many of us still do the kind of work that engages us in a dialogue with the material world that concludesassuming the chicken Kiev doesnt prematurely leak or the souffl doesnt collapse with such a gratifying and delicious sense of closure So maybe the reason we like to watch cooking on television and read about cooking in books is that there are things about cooking we really miss We might not feel we have the time or energy or the knowledge to do it ourselves every day, but were not prepared to see it disappear from our lives altogether If cooking is, as the anthropologists tell us, a defining human activitythe act with which culture begins, according to Claude Lvi Straussthen maybe we shouldnt be surprised that watching its processes unfold would strike deep emotional chords.The idea that cooking is a defining human activity is not a new one In 1773, the Scottish writer James Boswell, noting that no beast is a cook, called Homo sapiens the cooking animal Though he might have reconsidered that definition had he been able to gaze upon the frozen food cases at Walmart Fifty years later, in The Physiology of Taste, the French gastronome Jean Anthelme Brillat Savarin claimed that cooking made us who we are by teaching men to use fire, it had done the most to advance the cause of civilization More recently, Lvi Strauss, writing in The Raw and the Cooked in 1964, reported that many of the worlds cultures entertained a similar view, regarding cooking as the symbolic activity that establishes the difference between animals and people.For Lvi Strauss, cooking was a metaphor for the human transformation of raw nature into cooked culture But in the years since the publication of The Raw and the Cooked, other anthropologists have begun to take quite literally the idea that the invention of cooking might hold the evolutionary key to our humanness A few years ago, a Harvard anthropologist and primatologist named Richard Wrangham published a fascinating book called Catching Fire, in which he argued that it was the discovery of cooking by our early ancestorsand not tool making or meat eating or languagethat set us apart from the apes and made us human According to the cooking hypothesis, the advent of cooked food altered the course of human evolution By providing our forebears with a energy dense and easy to digest diet, it allowed our brains to grow bigger brains being notorious energy guzzlers and our guts to shrink It seems that raw food takes much time and energy to chew and digest, which is why other primates our size carry around substantially larger digestive tracts and spend many of their waking hours chewingas much as six hours a day.Cooking, in effect, took part of the work of chewing and digestion and performed it for us outside of the body, using outside sources of energy Also, since cooking detoxifies many potential sources of food, the new technology cracked open a treasure trove of calories unavailable to other animals Freed from the necessity of spending our days gathering large quantities of raw food and then chewing and chewing it, humans could now devote their time, and their metabolic resources, to other purposes, like creating a culture.Cooking gave us not just the meal but also the occasion the practice of eating together at an appointed time and place This was something new under the sun, for the forager of raw food would have likely fed himself on the go and alone, like all the other animals Or, come to think of it, like the industrial eaters weve recently become, grazing at gas stations and eating by ourselves whenever and wherever But sitting down to common meals, making eye contact, sharing food, and exercising self restraint all served to civilize us Around that fire, Wrangham writes, we became tamer.Cooking thus transformed us, and not only by making us sociable and civil Once cooking allowed us to expand our cognitive capacity at the expense of our digestive capacity, there was no going back Our big brains and tiny guts now depended on a diet of cooked food Raw foodists take note What this means is that cooking is now obligatoryit is, as it were, baked in to our biology What Winston Churchill once said of architectureFirst we shape our buildings, and then they shape usmight also be said of cooking First we cooked our food, and then our food cooked us.If cooking is as central to human identity, biology, and culture as Wrangham suggests, it stands to reason that the decline of cooking in our time would have serious consequences for modern life, and so it has Are they all bad Not at all The outsourcing of much of the work of cooking to corporations has relieved women of what has traditionally been their exclusive responsibility for feeding the family, making it easier for them to work outside the home and have careers It has headed off many of the conflicts and domestic arguments that such a large shift in gender roles and family dynamics was bound to spark It has relieved all sorts of other pressures in the household, including longer workdays and overscheduled children, and saved us time that we can now invest in other pursuits It has also allowed us to diversify our diets substantially, making it possible even for people with no cooking skills and little money to enjoy a whole different cuisine every night of the week All thats required is a microwave.These are no small benefits Yet they have come at a cost that we are just now beginning to reckon Industrial cooking has taken a substantial toll on our health and well being Corporations cook very differently from people do which is why we usually call what they do food processing instead of cooking They tend to use much sugar, fat, and salt than people cooking for people do they also deploy novel chemical ingredients seldom found in pantries in order to make their food last longer and look fresher than it really is So it will come as no surprise that the decline in home cooking closely tracks the rise in obesity and all the chronic diseases linked to diet.The rise of fast food and the decline in home cooking have also undermined the institution of the shared meal, by encouraging us to eat different things and to eat them on the run and often alone Survey researchers tell us were spending time engaged in secondary eating, as this or less constant grazing on packaged foods is now called, and less time engaged in primary eatinga rather depressing term for the once venerable institution known as the meal.The shared meal is no small thing It is a foundation of family life, the place where our children learn the art of conversation and acquire the habits of civilization sharing, listening, taking turns, navigating differences, arguing without offending What have been called the cultural contradictions of capitalismits tendency to undermine the stabilizing social forms it depends onare on vivid display today at the modern American dinner table, along with all the brightly colored packages that the food industry has managed to plant there.These are, I know, large claims to make for the centrality of cooking and not cooking in our lives, and a caveat or two are in order For most of us today, the choice is not nearly as blunt as Ive framed it that is, home cooking from scratch versus fast food prepared by corporations Most of us occupy a place somewhere between those bright poles, a spot that is constantly shifting with the day of the week, the occasion, and our mood Depending on the night, we might cook a meal from scratch, or we might go out or order in, or we might sort of cook This last option involves availing ourselves of the various and very useful shortcuts that an industrial food economy offers the package of spinach in the freezer, the can of wild salmon in the pantry, the box of store bought ravioli from down the street or halfway around the world What constitutes cooking takes place along a spectrum, as indeed it has for at least a century, when packaged foods first entered the kitchen and the definition of scratch cooking began to drift Thereby allowing me to regard my packaged ravioli with sage butter sauce as a culinary achievement Most of us over the course of a week find ourselves all over that spectrum What is new, however, is the great number of people now spending most nights at the far end of it, relying for the preponderance of their meals on an industry willing to do everything for them save the heating and the eating Weve had a hundred years of packaged foods, a food marketing consultant told me, and now were going to have a hundred years of packaged meals.This is a problemfor the health of our bodies, our families, our communities, and our land, but also for our sense of how our eating connects us to the world Our growing distance from any direct, physical engagement with the processes by which the raw stuff of nature gets transformed into a cooked meal is changing our understanding of what food is Indeed, the idea that food has any connection to nature or human work or imagination is hard to credit when it arrives in a neat package, fully formed Food becomes just another commodity, an abstraction And as soon as that happens we become easy prey for corporations selling synthetic versions of the real thingwhat I call edible foodlike substances We end up trying to nourish ourselves on images.Now, for a man to criticize these developments will perhaps rankle some readers To certain ears, whenever a man talks about the importance of cooking, it sounds like he wants to turn back the clock, and return women to the kitchen But thats not at all what I have in mind Ive come to think cooking is too important to be left to any one gender or member of the family men and children both need to be in the kitchen, too, and not just for reasons of fairness or equity but because they have so much to gain by being there., In fact, one of the biggest reasons corporations were able to insinuate themselves into this part of our lives is because home cooking had for so long been denigrated as womens work and therefore not important enough for men and boys to learn to do.Though its hard to say which came first Was home cooking denigrated because the work was mostly done by women, or did women get stuck doing most of the cooking because our culture denigrated the work The gender politics of cooking, which I explore at some length in part II, are nothing if not complicated, and probably always have been Since ancient times, a few special types of cooking have enjoyed considerable prestige Homers warriors barbecued their own joints of meat at no cost to their heroic status or masculinity And ever since, it has been socially acceptable for men to cook in public and professionallyfor money Though it is only recently that professional chefs have enjoyed the status of artists But for most of history most of humanitys food has been cooked by women working out of public view and without public recognition Except for the rare ceremonial occasions over which men presidedthe religious sacrifice, the July 4 barbecue, the four star restaurantcooking has traditionally been womens work, part and parcel of homemaking and child care, and therefore undeserving of seriousi.e., maleattention.But there may be another reason cooking has not received its proper due In a recent book called The Taste for Civilization, Janet A Flammang, a feminist scholar and political scientist who has argued eloquently for the social and political importance of food work, suggests the problem may have something to do with food itself, which by its very nature falls on the wrong sidethe feminine side of the mind body dualism in Western culture.Food is apprehended through the senses of touch, smell, and taste, she points out, which rank lower on the hierarchy of senses than sight and hearing, which are typically thought to give rise to knowledge In most of philosophy, religion, and literature, food is associated with body, animal, female, and appetitethings civilized men have sought to overcome with knowledge and reason.Very much to their loss.II.The premise of this book is that cookingdefined broadly enough to take in the whole spectrum of techniques people have devised for transforming the raw stuff of nature into nutritious and appealing things for us to eat and drinkis one of the most interesting and worthwhile things we humans do This is not something I fully appreciated before I set out to learn how to cook But after three years spent working under a succession of gifted teachers to master four of the key transformations we call cookinggrilling with fire, cooking with liquid, baking bread, and fermenting all sorts of thingsI came away with a very different body of knowledge from the one I went looking for Yes, by the end of my education I got pretty good at making a few thingsIm especially proud of my bread and some of my braises But I also learned things about the natural world and our implication in it that I dont think I could have learned in any other way I learned far than I ever expected to about the nature of work, the meaning of health, about tradition and ritual, self reliance and community, the rhythms of everyday life, and the supreme satisfaction of producing something I previously could only have imagined consuming, doing it outside of the cash economy for no other reason but love.This book is the story of my education in the kitchenbut also in the bakery, the dairy, the brewery, and the restaurant kitchen, some of the places where much of our cultures cooking now takes place Cooked is divided into four parts, one for each of the great transformations of nature into culture we call cooking Each of these, I was surprised and pleased to discover, corresponds to, and depends upon, one of the classical elements Fire, Water, Air, and Earth.Why this should be so I am not entirely sure But for thousands of years and in many different cultures, these elements have been regarded as the four irreducible, indestructible ingredients that make up the natural world Certainly they still loom large in our imagination The fact that modern science has dismissed the classical elements, reducing them to still elemental substances and forceswater to molecules of hydrogen and oxygen fire to a process of rapid oxidation, etc.hasnt really changed our lived experience of nature or the way we imagine it Science may have replaced the big four with a periodic table of 118 elements, and then reduced each of those to ever tinier particles, but our senses and our dreams have yet to get the news.To learn to cook is to put yourself on intimate terms with the laws of physics and chemistry, as well as the facts of biology and microbiology Yet, beginning with fire, I found that the older, prescientific elements figure largelyhugely, in factin apprehending the main transformations that comprise cooking, each in its own way Each element proposes a different set of techniques for transforming nature, but also a different stance toward the world, a different kind of work, and a different mood.Fire being the first element in cooking anyway , I began my education with it, exploring the most basic and earliest kind of cookery meat, on the grill My quest to learn the art of cooking with fire took me a long way from my backyard grill, to the barbecue pits and pit masters of eastern North Carolina, where cooking meat still means a whole pig roasted very slowly over a smoldering wood fire It was here, training under an accomplished and flamboyant pit master, that I got acquainted with cookings primary colorsanimal, wood, fire, timeand found a clearly marked path deep into the prehistory of cooking what first drove our protohuman ancestors to gather around the cook fire, and how that experience transformed them Killing and cooking a large animal has never been anything but an emotionally freighted and spiritually charged endeavor Rituals of sacrifice have attended this sort of cooking from the beginning, and I found their echoes reverberating even today, in twenty first century barbecue Then as now, the mood in fire cooking is heroic, masculine, theatrical, boastful, unironic, and faintly sometimes not so faintly ridiculous.It is in fact everything that cooking with water, the subject of part II, is not Historically, cooking with water comes after cooking with fire, since it awaited the invention of pots to cook in, an artifact of human culture only about ten thousand years old Now cooking moves indoors, into the domestic realm, and in this chapter I delve into everyday home cookery, its techniques and satisfactions as well as its discontents Befitting its subject, this section takes the shape of a single long recipe, unfolding step by step the age old techniques that grandmothers developed for teasing delicious food from the most ordinary of ingredients some aromatic plants, a little fat, a few scraps of meat, a long afternoon around the house Here, too, I apprenticed myself to a fl amboyant professional character, but she and I did most of our cooking at home in my kitchen, and often as a familyhome and family being very much the subject of this section.Part III takes up the element of air, which is all that distinguishes an exuberantly leavened loaf of bread from a sad gruel of pulverized grain By figuring out how to coax air into our food, we elevate it and ourselves, transcending, and vastly improving, what nature gives us in a handful of grass seed The story of Western civilization is pretty much the story of bread, which is arguably the first important food processing technology The counterargument comes from the brewers of beer, who may have gotten there first This section, which takes place in several different bakeries across the country including a Wonder Bread plant , follows two personal quests to bake a perfect, maximally airy and wholesome loaf of bread, and to pinpoint the precise historical moment that cooking took its fatefully wrong turn when civilization began processing food in such a way as to make it less nutritious rather than .Different as they are, these first three modes of cooking all depend on heat Not so the fourth Like the earth itself, the various arts of fermentation rely instead on biology to transform organic matter from one state to a interesting and nutritious other state Here I encountered the most amazing alchemies of all strong, allusive flavors and powerful intoxicants created for us by fungi and bacteriamany of them the denizens of the soilas they go about their invisible work of creative destruction This section falls into three chapters, covering the fermentation of vegetables into sauerkraut, kimchi, pickles of all kinds milk into cheese and alcohol into mead and beer Along the way, a succession of fermentos tutored me in the techniques of artfully managing rot, the folly of the modern war against bacteria, the erotics of disgust, and the somewhat upside down notion that, while we were fermenting alcohol, alcohol has been fermenting us.I have been fortunate in both the talent and the generosity of the teachers who agreed to take me inthe cooks, bakers, brewers, picklers, and cheese makers who shared their time and techniques and recipes This cast of characters turned out to be a lot masculine than I would have expected, and a reader might conclude that I have indulged in some unfortunate typecasting But as soon as I opted to apprentice myself to professional rather than amateur cooksin the hopes of acquiring the most rigorous training I could getit was probably inevitable that certain stereotypes would be reinforced It turns out that barbecue pit masters are almost exclusively men, as are brewers and bakers except for pastry chefs , and a remarkable number of cheese makers are women In learning to cook traditional pot dishes, I chose to work with a female chef, and if by doing so I underscored the clich that home cooking is womans work, that was sort of the idea I wanted to delve into that very question We can hope that all the gender stereotypes surrounding food and cooking will soon be thrown up for grabs, but to assume that has already happened would be to kid ourselves.Taken as a whole, this is a how to book, but of a very particular kind Each section circles around a single elemental recipefor barbecue, for a braise, for bread, and for a small handful of fermented itemsand by the end of it, you should be well enough equipped to make it The recipes are spelled out concisely in the appendix, in case you do want to try any of them Though all the cooking I describe can be done in a home kitchen, only a portion of the book deals directly with the kind of work most people regard as home cooking Several of the recipes here are for things most readers will probably never make themselvesbeer, for example, or cheese, or even bread Though I hope that they will Because I discovered there was much to learn from attempting, even if only just once, these ambitious and time consuming forms of cookery, knowledge that might not at first seem terribly useful but in fact changes everything about ones relationship to food and what is possible in the kitchen Let me try to explain.At bottom cooking is not a single process but, rather, comprises a small set of technologies, some of the most important humans have yet devised They changed us first as a species, and then at the level of the group, the family, and the individual These technologies range from the controlled used of fire to the manipulation of specific microorganisms to transform grain into bread or alcohol all the way to the microwave oventhe last major innovation So cooking is really a continuum of processes, from simple to complex, and Cooked is, among other things, a natural and social history of these transformations, both the ones that are still part of our everyday lives and the ones that are not Today, were apt to think of making cheese or brewing beer as extreme forms of cookery, only because so few of us have ever attempted them, but of course at one time all these transformations took place in the household and everyone had at least a rudimentary knowledge of how to perform them Nowadays, only a small handful of cookings technologies seem within the reach of our competence This represents not only a loss of knowledge, but a loss of a kind of power, too And it is entirely possible that, within another generation, cooking a meal from scratch will seem as exotic and ambitiousas extremeas most of us today regard brewing beer or baking a loaf of bread or putting up a crock of sauerkraut.When that happenswhen we no longer have any direct personal knowledge of how these wonderful creations are madefood will have become completely abstracted from its various contexts from the labor of human hands, from the natural world of plants and animals, from imagination and culture and community Indeed, food is already well on its way into that ether of abstraction, toward becoming mere fuel or pure image So how might we begin to bring it back to earth My wager in Cooked is that the best way to recover the reality of food, to return it to its proper place in ours lives, is by attempting to master the physical processes by which it has traditionally been made The good news is that this is still within our reach, no matter how limited our skills in the kitchen My own apprenticeship necessitated a journey far beyond my own kitchen and comfort zone , to some of the farther reaches of cookery, in the hopes of confronting the essential facts of the matter, and discovering exactly what it is about these transformations that helped make us who we are But perhaps my happiest discovery was that the wonders of cooking, even its most ambitious manifestations, rely on a magic that remains accessible to all of us, at home.I should add that the journey has been great fun, probably the most fun Ive ever had while still ostensibly working What is gratifying, after all, than discovering you can actually make something delicious or intoxicating that you simply assumed youd always have to buy in the marketplace Or finding yourself in that sweet spot where the frontier between work and play disappears in a cloud of bread flour or fragrant steam rising from a boiling kettle of wort Even in the case of the seemingly most impractical cooking adventures, I learned things of an unexpectedly practical value After youve tried your hand at brewing or pickling or slow roasting a whole hog, everyday home cooking becomes much less daunting, and in certain ways easier My own backyard barbecuing has been informed and improved by my hours hanging around the barbecue pit Working with bread dough has taught me how to trust my hands and my senses in the kitchen, and to have enough confidence in their reporting to free me from the bonds of recipe and measuring cup And having spent time in the bakeries of artisans as well as in a Wonder Bread factory, my appreciation for a good loaf of bread has grown much keen Same for a wedge of cheese or bottle of beer What had always been just products, good or bad, now reveal themselves as so much than thatas achievements, as expressions, as relationships By itself, this added increment of eating and drinking pleasure would have been enough to justify all the so called work.But perhaps the most important thing I learned by doing this work is how cooking implicates us in a whole web of social and ecological relationships with plants and animals, with the soil, with farmers, with the microbes both inside and outside our bodies, and, of course, with the people our cooking nourishes and delights Above all else, what I found in the kitchen is that cooking connects.Cookingof whatever kind, everyday or extremesituates us in the world in a very special place, facing the natural world on one side and the social world on the other The cook stands squarely between nature and culture, conducting a process of translation and negotiation Both nature and culture are transformed by the work And in the process, I discovered, so is the cook.III.As I grew steadily comfortable in the kitchen, I found that, much like gardening, most cooking manages to be agreeably absorbing without being too demanding intellectually It leaves plenty of mental space for daydreaming and reflection One of the things I reflected on is the whole question of taking on what in our time has become, strictly speaking, optional, even unnecessary work, work for which I am not particularly gifted or qualified, and at which I may never get very good This is, in the modern world, the unspoken question that hovers over all our cooking Why bother By any purely rational calculation, even everyday home cooking much less baking bread or fermenting kimchi is probably not a wise use of my time Not long ago, I read an Op Ed piece in The Wall Street Journal about the restaurant industry, written by the couple that publishes the Zagat restaurant guides, which took exactly this line Rather than coming home after work to cook, the Zagats suggested, people would be better off staying an extra hour in the office doing what they do well, and letting bargain restaurants do what they do best.Here in a nutshell is the classic argument for the division of labor, which, as Adam Smith and countless others have pointed out, has given us many of the blessings of civilization It is what allows me to make a living sitting at this screen writing, while others grow my food, sew my clothes, and supply the energy that lights and heats my house I can probably earn in an hour of writing or even teaching than I could save in a whole week of cooking Specialization is undeniably a powerful social and economic force And yet it is also debilitating It breeds helplessness, dependence, and ignorance and, eventually, it undermines any sense of responsibility.Our society assigns us a tiny number of roles Were producers of one thing at work, consumers of a great many other things all the rest of the time, and then, once a year or so, we take on the temporary role of citizen and cast a vote Virtually all our needs and desires we delegate to specialists of one kind or anotherour meals to the food industry, our health to the medical profession, entertainment to Hollywood and the media, mental health to the therapist or the drug company, caring for nature to the environmentalist, political action to the politician, and on and on it goes Before long it becomes hard to imagine doing much of anything for ourselvesanything, that is, except the work we do to make a living For everything else, we feel like weve lost the skills, or that theres someone who can do it better I recently heard about an agency that will dispatch a sympathetic someone to visit your elderly parents if you cant spare the time to do it yourself It seems as though we can no longer imagine anyone but a professional or an institution or a product supplying our daily needs or solving our problems This learned helplessness is, of course, much to the advantage of the corporations eager to step forward and do all this work for us.One problem with the division of labor in our complex economy is how it obscures the lines of connection, and therefore of responsibility, between our everyday acts and their real world consequences Specialization makes it easy to forget about the filth of the coal fired power plant that is lighting this pristine computer screen, or the backbreaking labor it took to pick the strawberries for my cereal, or the misery of the hog that lived and died so I could enjoy my bacon Specialization neatly hides our implication in all that is done on our behalf by unknown other specialists half a world away.Perhaps what most commends cooking to me is that it offers a powerful corrective to this way of being in the worlda corrective that is still available to all of us To butcher a pork shoulder is to be forcibly reminded that this is the shoulder of a large mammal, made up of distinct groups of muscles with a purpose quite apart from feeding me The work itself gives me a keener interest in the story of the hog where it came from and how it found its way to my kitchen In my hands its flesh feels a little less like the product of industry than of nature indeed, less like a product at all Likewise, to grow the greens Im serving with this pork, greens that in late spring seem to grow back almost as fast as I can cut them, is a daily reminder of natures abundance, the everyday miracle by which photons of light are turned into delicious things to eat.Handling these plants and animals, taking back the production and the preparation of even just some part of our food, has the salutary effect of making visible again many of the lines of connection that the supermarket and the home meal replacement have succeeded in obscuring, yet of course never actually eliminated To do so is to take back a measure of responsibility, too, to become, at the very least, a little less glib in ones pronouncements.Especially ones pronouncements about the environment, which suddenly begins to seem a little less out there and a lot closer to home For what is the environmental crisis if not a crisis of the way we live The Big Problem is nothing or less than the sum total of countless little everyday choices, most of them made by us consumer spending represents nearly three quarters of the U.S economy and the rest of them made by others in the name of our needs and desires If the environmental crisis is ultimately a crisis of character, as Wendell Berry told us way back in the 1970s, then sooner or later it will have to be addressed at that levelat home, as it were In our yards and kitchens and minds.As soon as you start down this path of thinking, the quotidian space of the kitchen appears in a startling new light It begins to matter than we ever imagined The unspoken reason why political reformers from Vladimir Lenin to Betty Friedan sought to get women out of the kitchen was that nothing of importancenothing worthy of their talents and intelligence and convictionstook place there The only worthy arenas for consequential action were the workplace and the public square But this was before the environmental crisis had come into view, and before the industrialization of our eating created a crisis in our health Changing the world will always require action and participation in the public realm, but in our time that will no longer be sufficient Well have to change the way we live, too What that means is that the sites of our everyday engagement with natureour kitchens, gardens, houses, carsmatter to the fate of the world in a way they never have before.To cook or not to cook thus becomes a consequential question Though I realize that is putting the matter a bit too bluntly Cooking means different things at different times to different people seldom is it an all or nothing proposition Yet even to cook a few nights a week than you already do, or to devote a Sunday to making a few meals for the week, or perhaps to try every now and again to make something you only ever expected to buyeven these modest acts will constitute a kind of a vote A vote for what, exactly Well, in a world where so few of us are obliged to cook at all any, to choose to do so is to lodge a protest against specializationagainst the total rationalization of life Against the infiltration of commercial interests into every last cranny of our lives To cook for the pleasure of it, to devote a portion of our leisure to it, is to declare our independence from the corporations seeking to organize our every waking moment into yet another occasion for consumption Come to think of it, our nonwaking moments as well Ambien, anyone It is to reject the debilitating notion that, at least while were at home, production is work best done by someone else, and the only legitimate form of leisure is consumption This dependence marketers call freedom.Cooking has the power to transform than plants and animals It transforms us, too, from mere consumers into producers Not completely, not all the time, but I have found that even to shift the ratio between these two identities a few degrees toward the side of production yields deep and unexpected satisfactions Cooked is an invitation to alter, however slightly, the ratio between production and consumption in your life The regular exercise of these simple skills for producing some of the necessities of life increases self reliance and freedom while reducing our dependence on distant corporations Not just our money but our power flows toward them whenever we cannot supply any of our everyday needs and desires ourselves And it begins to flow back toward us, and our community, as soon as we decide to take some responsibility for feeding ourselves This has been an early lesson of the rising movement to rebuild local food economies, a movement that ultimately depends for its success on our willingness to put thought and effort into feeding ourselves Not every day, not every mealbut often than we do, whenever we can.Cooking, I found, gives us the opportunity, so rare in modern life, to work directly in our own support, and in the support of the people we feed If this is not making a living, I dont know what is In the calculus of economics, doing so may not always be the most efficient use of an amateur cooks time, but in the calculus of human emotion, it is beautiful even so For is there any practice less selfish, any labor less alienated, any time less wasted, than preparing something delicious and nourishing for people you love So lets begin.At the beginning, with fire.A rare, ranging breed of narrative that manages to do all Its nothing short of important, possibly life altering, reading for every living, breathing human being In Pollans dexterous hands, we get the science, the history, the inspiration, ultimately the recipe What feels like all of it It doesnt hurt that he also happens to be very funny Boston Globe Because of the power of his prose and his reasoning, Cooked may prove to be just as influential as Pollans seminal book, The Omnivores Dilemma The results are fascinating, but the magic of Cooked lies not in its ability to unlock the secrets of slow roasting a whole hog or brewing beer No, what Pollan pulls off is even impressive He manages to illuminate the wealth of connections that stem from our DIY time in the kitchen The Washington Post As in The Omnivores Dilemma, Pollan is never less than delightful, full of curiosity, insight, and good humor This is a book to be read, savored, and smudged with spatterings of olive oil, wine, butter, and the sulfuric streaks of chopped onion OutsideThe book s surplus of fascinating tidbitsabout everything from barbecue which Pollan connects to ritual animal sacrifice to the mysterious workings of bread yeast makes it a feast for intellectual omnivores Entertainment WeeklyThrough cooking, Pollan argues, we clear a space, allowing ourselves not only to consider our sometimes troubled bond with nature but to reestablish our ties to one another, and to become makers instead of consumers Cooked is a potently seductive invitation to discoveror rediscoverour most primal connection to the natural world Bookforum Spurred by a number of objectivesimproving his familys general health, connecting with his teenage son, and learning how people can reduce their dependence on corporations, among othersPollan The Omnivores Dilemma In Defense of Food came to the realization that hed be able to accomplish all those goals and if he spent time in his kitchen He began cooking Divided into four chapters based on the four elements, Pollan eloquently explains how grilling with fire, braising water , baking bread air , and fermented foods earth have impacted our health and culture Engaging and enlightening reading Publishers Weekly starred review New York Times best selling author Pollan The Botany of Desire The Omnivores Dilemma delivers a thoughtful meditation on cooking that is both difficult to categorize and uniquely, inimitably his Intensely focused yet wide ranging, beautifully written, thought provoking, and, yes, fun, Pollans latest is not to be missed by those interested in how, why, or what we cook and eat Library Journal starred review Having described what s wrong with American food in his best selling The Omnivore s Dilemma 2006 , New York Times contributor Pollan delivers a optimistic but equally fascinating account of how to do it right A delightful chronicle of the education of a cook who steps back frequently to extol the scientific and philosophical basis of this deeply satisfying human activity Kirkus starred review Pollans newest treatise on how food reaches the worlds tables delves into the history of how humankind turns raw ingredients into palatable and nutritious food To bring some sense of order to this vast subject, he resurrects classical categories of fire, water, air, and earth Four recipes accompany the text, and an extensive bibliography offers much deeper exploration Pollans peerless reputation as one of Americas most compelling expositors of food and human sustainability will boost demand Booklist starred review Cooked A Natural History of Transformation Michael Cooked Pollan on FREE shipping qualifying offers Now a docu series streaming Netflix, starring as he explores how cooking transforms food and shapes our world Oscar winning filmmaker Alex Gibney executive produces the four part based s book Kindle edition by Download it once read your device, PC, phones or tablets Use features like bookmarks, note taking highlighting while reading Netflix Official Site TV PG Season As tries his hand at baking, brewing braising, acclaimed writer Natural Toxins in Raw Foods How Cooking Affects Them Here, we will only investigate few examples, since list all natural toxic constituents would be extremely long Ames , besides which not have been studied yet It appear that heating does destroy these constituents, some but toxins listed below are found foods commonly eaten cooked, inedible raw, except Fully Chicken Sausage Dinner al fresco fresco line up healthy, fully cooked chicken sausage is constantly growing Try any variety sausages for dinner tonight Rice Wikipedia Rice seed grass species Oryza sativa Asian rice glaberrima African cereal grain, most widely consumed staple large human population, especially Asia agricultural commodity with third highest worldwide production rice, million tonnes after sugarcane billion maize Chemicals Meat High Temperatures Cancer The formation HCAs PAHs varies meat type, method, doneness level rare, medium, well done Whatever type meat, however, meats high temperatures, above F grilling pan frying Cooking cookery art, technology, science craft preparing consumption techniques ingredients vary across world, from over an open fire to using electric stoves, baking various types ovens, reflecting unique environmental, economic, cultural traditions trendsThe ways also depend skill Pet Pantry Your trusted resource I am so glad this place had waffling about switching my dog raw thanks Pantry, thrilled made switch avoid during pregnancy puts you higher chance getting sick Staying away certain can help keep baby safeMichael Pollan writes places where nature culture intersect plates, farms gardens, built environment author seven previous books, including Cooked, Food Rules, In Defense Food, Omnivore Dilemma Botany Desire, were New York Times bestsellers About About For than thirty years, has writing books articles michaelpollan Twitter new study better management forests, grasslands soils United States could offset much percent country annual greenhouse gas Home Facebook Julian Agyeman, Caitlin Matthews, Hannah Sobel, eds Trucks, Cultural Identity, Social Justice MIT Press, love single topics wonderful one p l n American author, journalist, activist, Lewis K Chan Arts Lecturer Professor Practice Non Fiction Harvard University professor journalism UC Berkeley Graduate School Journalism In Of From bestselling comes bracing eloquent manifesto shows readers they might start making thoughtful choices enrich their lives enlarge sense what means healthy Rules Eating WebMD Mar March We Americans suffer national eating disorder unhealthy obsession That diagnosis delivered Fresh Air Explains Science May Author always curious psychoactive plants, interest skyrocketed when heard research Drops Acid Comes Back His Trip Jun HOW TO CHANGE YOUR MIND What Psychedelics Teaches Us Consciousness, Dying, Addiction, Depression, Transcendence By pp Penguin Press News PollanNews Unofficial news source Pollan, noted Automatic posting Google Alerts AlertRank who was born grew Long Island, educated Bennington College, Oxford University, Columbia received Master English He Bay Area wife, painter Judith Belzer, son, Isaac IMDb February York, USA producer, known Cowspiracy Sustainability Secret Inc married Belzer September Cooked: A Natural History of Transformation

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *