╩ [PDF]-Free Read Online The Gay Revolution: The Story of the Struggle ▕ E-Pub Author Lillian Faderman ◃ ╩ [PDF]-Free Read Online The Gay Revolution: The Story of the Struggle ▕ E-Pub Author Lillian Faderman ◃ The Gay Revolution Chapter 1 LAWBREAKERS AND LOONIES HOMOSEXUALIST PSYCHOPATHIC INDIVIDUALS Dr Carleton Simon was an enlightened man Though special deputy police commissioner for New York State since 1920, he opposed the death penalty, and he advocated the rehabilitation of criminals He opened a psychiatric clinic to serve the mentally disturbed down and out of the Bowery and he disputed the use of the water cure, a torture technique devised by the US Army to interrogate prisoners during the occupation of the Philippines in World War II He was a star among law enforcement officials and the medical establishment, and among societys upper crust, too.1 But Dr Simon had his idiosyncrasies and prejudices The bald, hulking doctor dabbled in phrenology He assured his formidable audiences, including the New York Academy of Medicine and the New York State Association of Chiefs of Police, that a criminal could be identified even before he committed a crime by a drooping eyelid or a hanging corner of the mouth.2 Simon was also an expert on race Negro criminals, he opined, were dishonest, shiftless, and unreliable.3 His 1947 lecture to the International Association of Chiefs of Police on Homosexualists and Sex Crimes, a model of bigotry and flawed logic, passed for science that lay people accepted uncritically The born male homosexualists, he asserted, are easy to spot by their female characteristics their walk, body contour, voice, mannerisms, texture of skin, and also their interest in housekeeping and theatrical productions The women homosexualists are fickle, always eager to add to their list of conquests, and are extremely jealous of the object of their lusts Though Simon granted that some homosexualists live as decent members of society, many, he insisted, have psychopathic personalities, are indifferent to public opinion, and become predatory prostitutes He extolled the state of Illinoiss treatment of homosexualist psychopathic individuals and recommended it be adopted everywhere In Illinois, convicted homosexualists could be held as psychiatric prisoners until they recovered If they recovered, they were then tried for having committed sodomy, which was punishable in that state by up to ten years in prison.4 Dr Simon had influential counterparts all over the country, such as Dr.Arthur Lewis Miller, a Nebraska physician who was state health director From that position of authority, Dr Miller disseminated his theory about the homosexuals cycles of uncontrolled desire, which were as regular as womens menstrual cycles Three or four days in each month, the homosexuals instinct for moral decency breaks down, and he is driven into abnormal fields of sexual practice Because the homosexual cant control himself, the doctor told the Nebraska State Medical Association, science must step in Large doses of sedatives or other treatment were what Dr.Miller recommended to help the homosexual escape from performing acts of homosexuality.5 When Dr Miller was elected to the US Congress, he brought his ideas with him to Washington As Congressman Miller, he authored a Sexual Psychopath Law for the District of Columbia.6 The Miller Act, as it was called, passed both the House and the Senate without difficulty It made sodomy punishable by up to twenty years in prison It also mandated that anyone accused of sodomy defined as either anal or oral sex had to be examined by a psychiatric team The psychiatrists would determine whether the accused was a sexual psychopathone who through repeated misconduct in sexual matters had shown himself to be unable to control his sexual impulses If a man were picked up several times by the DC police for cruising in Lafayette Park, for instance, the psychiatric team could diagnose him to be a sexual psychopath, and he could be committed to the criminal ward of the District of Columbias St Elizabeths psychiatric hospital, even before being allowed his day in court Under section 207 of the bill, he would remain there until the superintendent of St Elizabeths finds that he has sufficiently recovered The Senate Committee on the District of Columbia called the Miller Act a humane and practical approach to the problem of persons unable to control their sexual emotions.7 President Harry Truman signed Dr Millers bill into law in June 1948 Five months earlier, Alfred Kinseys Sexual Behavior in the Human Male had been published No one who was reasonably informed could have escaped knowing about Kinseys book because it was reviewed in every major newspaper and magazine in the country Kinseys name became a household word He and his team had interviewed 5,300 men, asking each of them over three hundred questions the Kinsey Study found that 46 percent of American males admitted that as adults theyd reacted sexually to both males and females 37 percent admitted to having had at least one homosexual experience as an adult 10 percent said that as adults theyd been or less exclusively homosexual for at least three years.8 Even those who chose to believe that Kinseys numbers were inflated had to admit the likelihood that vast numbers of the male population were having sex with other men But, in a stunning disconnect, lawmakers and the medical doctors who influenced them preferred to insist that people who engaged in such acts comprised a tiny distinct group, different from the rest of humanity These homosexuals were lawbreakers and loonies, and they must be controlled.9 CONTROLLING THE LAWBREAKERS About ten oclock on the evening of September 4, 1959, Thomas Ferry, a strikingly well built young man in tight jeans and a form fitting T shirt, walked into Tigers, a beer and wine bar on Los Angeless Sunset Strip The routine wasnt new to him hed been in Tigers five times in the last weeks He sat down at the end of the long bar so that he could see the action, and he ordered a beer Ten oclock was early for a Friday night, and the crowd was thin As Ferry sipped from his glass, he idly watched a shirtless man in his twenties, eyebrows penciled and eyes mascaraed, stand at the jukebox and feed it dimes, and then walk back to his seat with an exaggerated swishing of his hips Ferry hadnt taken than a few sips of his beer before the bartender placed in front of him another full glass The bartender nodded in the direction of a man sitting a few stools away The man, in his thirties perhaps, was smiling at Ferry Ferry had been in Tigers no than ten minutes, but he knew hed already caught his fish Ferry got up and walked over to where the man was sitting Thanks for the beer, he said Do I know you No, but Id like to know you, the man said He introduced himself as Jim Cannon and offered his hand Ferry shook hands warmly, and then pulled a business card from a back pocket and gave it to Cannon The card said that the affable young man was Tom Ferry, a salesman Well, pleased to meet you, Tom, Cannon said, putting the card in his wallet Let me buy you a drink now, Ferry said, standing close to Jim Cannons bar stool.10 Two of Jim Cannons friends whod just come back from San Francisco walked into Tigers and, spotting Cannon, came over to chat about their gay adventures up north Ferry stood there patiently, listening Why dont you sit down, Cannon suggested, and Ferry took the stool next to him In the dark of the bar, Cannon, still talking with his friends, put a hand on Ferrys knee Ferry sat there Cannon squeezed his thigh, stroked his pubic area, and Ferry still didnt move away After Cannons friends went off to find a table, Ferry said casually, Well, its too dead in here for me I think Ill leave Do you want to go My cars across the street Yeah, swell Cannon said, flattered by the buff younger mans willingness They left and crossed the street together Officer Martin Yturralde, who was waiting in the unmarked car, got out to witness Thomas Ferry flash his officers badge at James Cannon, pull out his handcuffs, and make the arrest Officers Ferry and Yturralde deposited the stunned Cannon into the back of the car and drove him to the Hollywood police station, where he was asked to take out his wallet and show his identification Officer Ferry plucked his salesman card from Cannons wallet because he knew hed be using it again.11 James Cannon was charged under Penal Code 647.5 Vag lewd, which covered vagrancy as well as lewd and lascivious conduct Ferrys report was added to the record the Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control had been building for monthsreports of dozens of visits to Tigers by undercover agents and officers After the deputy attorney general of California examined their testimonies, he affirmed the ABCs recommendation The bars license was revoked.12 The California Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control had actually been created because of homosexuals Before 1955, there was only an Alcoholic Beverage Commission, under the Board of Equalization In 1951 the California Legislature authorized and pledged to finance a four year study on Sexual Psychopath Legislation in twenty three states and the District of Columbia.13 Four years later, horrified as theyd expected to be by what the study told about homosexuals and their victims, the legislators passed a constitutional amendment that created a Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control and added a section to the Business and Professions Code that said that a liquor license could be revoked if a place was a resort where sexual perverts congregated.14 The newly created ABC was charged with maintaining public safety in establishments that served alcoholand homosexuality, the legislature and most of America agreed, was intensely injurious to the public Undercover agents and vice squad police were sent out on fishing expeditions, to find any evidence that the ABC could use to close the doors of homosexual bars In San Francisco, by the late 1950s, there were so many undercover officers and agents that some nights they made up 25 percent of the people in the bar For several months in 1959, for instance, agents were sent to a small, sedate bar on Geary Street, the Criterion Lounge According to the hearing transcript of the agents testimony, one evening there were sixteen patrons and four undercover officers in the bareach officer waiting for a patron to do something lewd to him.15 Lesbians were less likely than homosexual men to make a sexual move on a stranger after a brief conversation, but women agents and undercover officers were sent into lesbian bars as spies.16 Almost as soon as the Alcoholic Beverage Control was established in 1955, vice squad officer Marge Gwinn was sent with another undercover policewoman, Helen Davis, to do surveillance on Pearls, a lesbian bar that catered mostly to Latinas, for whom the place was like a social club Gwinn passing for butch in boys pants and short pomaded hair, and Davis passing for her femme, hit pay dirt after only a few nights Lorinda Pereira, a young woman in a dress and high heels, plopped herself down on the lap of short haired Dorothy Gardner, who was decked out in a mans shirt and fly front trousers Gardner petted Pereiras leg and then rested her hand somewhere near Pereiras pubic areaand Officers Gwinn and Davis quietly summoned their Oakland Police Department colleagues for a 1 30 a.m raid With a nod to the raiding police, the two officers identified the two women whose behavior was injurious to public welfare and morals Pereira and Gardner were the first to be taken out to the paddy wagon At the station, they were charged under Penal Code 647.5, vag lewds, and were given suspended sentences of thirty days Their misconduct was the heart of the ABC case to revoke Pearl Kershaws liquor license and shut the bar down.17 At a time when bars were the only public place where homosexuals could congregate, the loss of any gay bar was no small thing Yet there was almost no public protest among gay bar goers when Pearls was lost nor when the North Coastal Area administrator of the ABC, Sidney Feinberg, declared a vigorous campaign to revoke the licenses of all gay establishments in the region Feinberg, an imposing figure with a booming voice,18 announced publicly that hed put a dozen undercover agents to work, gathering evidence.19 But to protest, homosexuals would have had to admit they were part of a group called perverts and psychopaths Everywhere, homosexual anger was tamped down by shame and fear.20 If you let your homosexuality show, the streets were even unsafe than the bars George Barrett was a police officer with New Yorks Sixteenth Precinct Germs, degenerates, and perverts he called the homosexuals and other lawbreakers he ran into on his beat around Times Square, an area he dubbed the sewer Barrett admitted to being obsessed with cleaning up the sewer and getting rid of the germs His language, and his looks too, were a caricature of the hard boiled film noir cop If I cant get the best of a guy with punches, Ill kick him, and if hes a better kicker than I am, Ill go with the stick or the jack, and if I have to, Ill use my gun, he told James Mills, a reporter for Life magazine in 1965 Mills described him in a long, illustrated feature article as having eyes as cold as gun metal and a jaw as hard and square as a brick Barrett liked the description My wife says I got a mean look too, he boasted Most nights, Barrett roamed the area between Forty Third and Forty Fifth Streets, looking to bust homosexual prostitutes and their clients He relished his work so much that he invited Mills to come along and watch the perverts with him These animals, Ill eat them up he told the reporter, who shadowed him up and down the streets Barrett pointed out a group of five women standing together in a doorway prostitutes and heroin addicts, all of them lesbians, he snarled On a side street off Broadway, Barrett stopped when he saw a knot of six young men, two of them in a heated altercation Are you males he growled, though he knew they were Yes, they said, startled by the sudden appearance of a cop Are you homosexual Yes, they admitted Well, you germs walk up this street to Broadway and get lost Dont come back To the one who was the most aggressive, a black man, Barrett said, Im going to walk you around the corner to the subway, and youre going to run down that hole and get out of here, and if you ever come back, Im going to drill you right between the eyes, you understand that Even reporter James Mills was taken aback at Officer Barretts violent threat to the young man Yeah, I was rough on him, Barrett agreed But I wont be hearing from his lawyers because the guy is an admitted homosexual.21 Not one of Lifes millions of readers wrote to express their disapproval.22 CONTROLLING THE LOONIES Poor or well off black, brown, or white male or femalehomosexuals were criminals or crazies or both Vice squad officers Grimm and Beaudry spent the summer of 1962 cruising around the streets of downtown San Diego, protecting young sailors stationed at the naval base from the pitfalls of vice during their R R On the afternoon of July 1, theyd gotten a complaint, they said later, that two Negro males were extorting money from sailors by promising to hook them up with a female prostitute At six oclock the officers spotted a black man, Eldridge Rhodes, who fit the description of one of the supposed pimps He was walking on Fifth and Market Streets in the company of Thomas Earl, a young white man who, though dressed in civvies, might be a sailor Grimm and Beaudry parked their police car and tailed the two on foot for a block and a half, to one of the shabby downtown hotels The plainclothes officers lingered in the doorway and saw the two men take the stairs up to a room on the second floor The officers flashed their badges to the unnerved desk clerk and got the mens room number The door to room 214 was closed, but through an open transom Officers Grimm and Beaudry heard a bed squeaking and kissing type noises Grimm discovered that the door didnt fit tightly against the door frame, and there was a gap in the molding Peering in, he could see the two men sitting on a bed, naked, embracing and kissing When the men moved out of Grimms sight line, Beaudry gave him a boost so he could peer through the transom for a better view Oral copulation Beaudry, too heavy for a boost, rushed back downstairs to the desk clerk and demanded a stool he needed to confirm what Grimm had seen.23 Thomas Earl and Eldridge Rhodes were tried in 1963, a decade and a half since Drs Simon and Miller had called for the psychiatric institutionalization of those found guilty of homosexual crimes By now in many states, facilities had been built and mechanisms put in place In California, there was Atascadero State Hospital, constructed in 1954 at the cost to taxpayers of over 10 million almost 100 million in todays money Atascadero was a maximum security psychiatric prison on the central coast where mentally disordered male lawbreakers from all over California were incarcerated Inmates were treated at Atascadero by a variety of methods, including electroconvulsive therapy, lobotomy, sterilization, and hormone injections Anectine was used often for behavior modification It was a muscle relaxant, which gave the person to whom it was administered the sensation of choking or drowning, while he received the message from the doctor that if he didnt change his behavior he would die.24 Earl and Rhodes were found guilty of violating Penal Code section 288a, which made oral copulation a crime in California that was punishable by up to fifteen years in prison.25 A district court sent them to Atascadero for an indeterminate period Thomas Earl fought to get a retrial on the grounds that Officers Grimm and Beaudry did not have a warrant when they spied on him and Rhodes and broke into their hotel room An appeals court ruled that looking through a gap in a door and listening to noises that came through a transom did not violate legal procedures, and once the officers saw what they saw, they were right to break into the room.26 Sally Taft Duplaix27 was a sopho in 1956 at Smith, the rich girls college Classy all American girl looks, stylish, and smart too, Sally had even been valedictorian at her posh high school She seemed to fit perfectly into the Smith environment, until another student reported to the dean that shed caught Sally and her roommate in flagrante delicto Though wealthy whites, especially females, didnt generally get arrested and committed to state hospitals for being homosexual, as did people like Thomas Earl and Eldridge Rhodes, they werent unscathed by the widespread assumption that homosexuality was a sickness and needed curing A few years earlier, in 1952, that assumption had been made official in the American Psychiatric Associations first Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the psychiatrists bible Homosexuality was pathological behavior, the DSM stated Sally Duplaix was sent to the Smith College doctor, who informed her parents that they must put their daughter under a psychiatrists care.28 Duplaixs parents werent uneducated, but they knew no about homosexuality than did most other straight people at midcentury Their knowledge on the subject came mostly from popular mediamagazines such as the widely read Colliers, which called homosexuality the biggest taboo, and associated it with sexual maladjustment and sex crimes that twist the lives of tens of thousands of people into patterns that are as pitiful as they are ugly.29 A flood of books and popular articles by psychoanalysts such as Irving Bieber, Charles Socarides, and Edmund Bergler promised that rescue was possible With enough psychoanalysis and the money to pay for it homosexuals could be transformed into heterosexuals Duplaixs parents found a psychoanalyst for her in Manhattan, and five days a week she was to take the train in from the suburbs in order to be cured.30 Duplaix showed up dutifully, but she was uninterested and uncooperative, the doctor said He told her parents shed do better in a residential facility He recommended Silver Hill Hospital in New Canaan, Connecticut, a place that looked like a five star hotel on a country estate As well off as Duplaixs parents were, they had to take out a second mortgage on their home to afford the treatment The facility specialized in super rich alcoholics who came to dry out, but the doctor thought Duplaix would benefit from the multihour seven day a week regimen of private and group therapy She didnt She refused to stop saying that she was a homosexual and was not ashamed The Silver Hill staff recommended that she be sent to a private mental hospital, the Elmcrest Psychiatric Institute in Portland, Connecticut There Duplaix was heavily medicated She received both insulin shock and electroshock treatments She was told that if she didnt behave, shed be transferred to Littleton, the state asylum in the next town, which was far worse Shed heard that lobotomies were sometimes performed to cure people of homosexuality, and she feared shed be lobotomized.31 Little Miss Spoiled in the Snake Pit, she later said of her helplessness and dread at Elmcrest One evening Duplaix managed to escape, running through the autumn fields in search of a pay phone She found one in a caf not far from the hospital She wanted to call her parents and beg them to get her out of Elmcrest But the caf was the first place the Elmcrest attendants looked for her Before she could tell the telephone operator she wished to make a collect call, the attendants had bundled her into the hospital van and brought her back From that point on, she was allowed to dress only in nightgown, bathrobe, and slippers, to assure she wouldnt attempt another escape In December 1956, after five months of shock treatments and heavy medication, Duplaix was released to her parents, who again put her in psychoanalysis She died in July 2012, at the age of seventy six, still a lesbian The malevolent monsters of the mental health establishment, shed called the psychiatrists who treated her But shed overcome her anger toward her parents for throwing her to the monsters by telling herself that was what loving parents with some money and some sophistication did in the 1950s It was no better and no worse, she theorized, than what poor or unenlightened parents did they threw their homosexual children out into the streets.32The sweeping story of the struggle for gay and lesbian rightsbased on amazing interviews with politicians, military figures, and members of the entire LGBT community who face these challenges every day This is the history of the gay and lesbian movement that weve been waiting for The Washington Post.The fight for gay and lesbian civil rightsthe years of outrageous injustice, the early battles, the heart breaking defeats, and the victories beyond the dreams of the gay rights pioneersis the most important civil rights issue of the present day In the most comprehensive history to date of Americas gay rights movement The Economist , Lillian Faderman tells this unfinished story through the dramatic accounts of passionate struggles with sweep, depth, and feeling The Gay Revolution begins in the 1950s, when gays and lesbians were criminals, psychiatrists saw them as mentally ill, churches saw them as sinners, and society victimized them with hatred Against this dark backdrop, a few brave people began to fight back, paving the way for the revolutionary changes of the 1960s and beyond Faderman discusses the protests in the 1960s the counter reaction of the 1970s and early eighties the decimated but united community during the AIDS epidemic and the current hurdles for the right to marriage equality A compelling read of a little known part of our nations history, and of individuals whose stories range from heart wrenching to inspiring to enraging to motivational Chicago Tribune , The Gay Revolution paints a nuanced portrait of the LGBT civil rights movement A defining account, this is the most complete and authoritative book of its kind. The Gay Revolution: The Story of the Struggle

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