⇃ digital Generation Me - Revised and Updated: Why Today's Young Americans Are More Confident, Assertive, Entitled--and More Miserable Than Ever Before (English Edition) eBook: Jean M. Twenge: Amazon.fr: Amazon Media EU  S.à r.l. ⢨ ePUB By Jean M Twenge ⤞ ⇃ digital Generation Me - Revised and Updated: Why Today's Young Americans Are More Confident, Assertive, Entitled--and More Miserable Than Ever Before (English Edition) eBook: Jean M. Twenge: Amazon.fr: Amazon Media EU S.à r.l. ⢨ ePUB By Jean M Twenge ⤞ Generation Me Revised and Updated 1 You Dont Need Their Approval The Decline of Social Rules Getting dressed in the morning is a fundamentally different experience today than it was fifty years ago For all of Generation Mes lifetime, clothes have been a medium of self expression, an individual choice in a range of alternatives and comfort Contrast this to past decades, when men wore ties most of the time and women did not leave the house without crisp white gloves and a tight girdle Pictures of crowds in the early 1960s show quaint sights such as men wearing three piece suits at baseball games and ladies lined up in identical length skirts To GenMe, these images look like those of people on an alien planetwho wears a suit to a baseball game Even our shoes are different Todays casual footwear are called tennis shoes because people once wore them only to play tennis or basketball Not even kids wore these types of shoes on the streettheir shoes were made of stiff leather, just like adults Now thats all but forgotten Except in the most formal of workplaces, few men wear suits to work, and virtually no one wears them to baseball games Women have thankfully abandoned wearing tight girdles and white gloves everywhere they go and many young women dont even know what a girdle is, though some are devoted to Spanx, the GenMe version The trend toward informal dress has accelerated in the past ten years, with many companies opting for business casual and others going for just plain casual The trend reached all the way to the top in July 2005, when about half the members of the Northwestern University womens lacrosse team wore flip flops during their White House visit, resulting in a picture of the president of the United States standing next to several young women wearing shoes that were once reserved for walking on sand or showering in scuzzy gymnasiums Although most people still want to look good, we are a much informal and accepting society than we once were This is a perfect illustration of generational trends in attitudes, as the entire point in dressing up is to make a good impression on others and elicit their approval You dont dress to be relaxed, natural, and happy Holiday card, Minnesota, 1955 Not only are the clothes formal, but so is the posing and demeanor The perfect family was proper and composed Holiday card, Massachusetts, mid 2000s Formal clothing is no longer necessary to make a good impression It is now important to dress for yourself or for your comfort if you really wanted to do things your way and just for yourself, youd wear jeans to work Many of us already do.The strict rules of previous decades went far beyond appearance Beneath the wool suits and tailored hats, yesterdays men and women were bound by another type of conformity Male or female, you were considered strange if you did not marry by age 25 and even stranger if you married outside your race or religion It was expected that you would have childrenit was not considered a choice Your race and sex dictated your fate and behavior When war came, you went to fight if you were male and able Overall, duty and responsibility were held important than individual needs and wants You did certain things, you said certain things, and you didnt talk about certain things End of story Today, few of these rules apply We are driven instead by our individual needs and desires We are told to follow our dreams, to pursue happiness above all else Its okay to be different, and you should do whats right for you The phrase my needs was four times as common in American books in the 2000s compared to those in the 1960s Young people today are only half as likely as those in the late 1980s to believe that children should learn obedience above all else Baby boys in the 2010s versus the 1950s were three times less likely to receive one of the ten most popular names These changes are not clearly good or clearly bad, but they do indicate a strong shift toward individualism The choices of the individual are now held so paramount that the most common advice given to teenagers is Just be yourself Not that long ago, it was likely to be Be polite This started with Generation X Filmmaker Kevin Smith says, My generation believes we can do almost anything My characters are free no social s keep them in check Or take Melissa, 20, who says, I couldnt care less how I am viewed by society I live my life according to the morals, views, and standards that I create This is the social trendso strong its a revolutionthat ties all of the generational changes together in a neat, tight bundle do what makes you happy, and dont worry about what other people think It is enormously different from the cultural ethos of previous decades, and it is a philosophy that GenMe takes entirely for granted As long as I believe in myself, I really do not care what others think, says Rachel, 21 GENERATIONS AT THE CINEMA The ethos of self belief appears frequently in popular movies my favorite examples involve what I call the apparent time traveler The main character in these films is supposed to be a real person in the 1950s, but he or she actually represents the enlightened voice of the 21st century, which makes him or her the hero of the film These movies were ubiquitous in the 2000s, when much of GenMe were forming their view of the world In 2003s Mona Lisa Smile, Julia Roberts plays a professor at Wellesley College in 1953 Soon after arriving, she rallies her students against the restrictions of early marriage and training for motherhood When she critiques sexist advertising during a class, the modern audience knows exactly what she is doing, but few people in the 1950s would have seen it beforeor even thought to do it Robertss character has clearly taken the time traveler shuttle to the future and absconded with a copy of the 1987 feminist antiadvertising film Still Killing Us Softly The Majestic, released in 2001, is an even worse movie Jim Carreys character, a Hollywood screenwriter, gets blacklisted and takes refuge in a small town After he is asked to testify, he convinces the entire town that McCarthyism is bad and that free speech is our most treasured right The whole town unites behind the accused writer, and the main female character says, It doesnt really matter if you are a Communist or notthis is America and you can be one if you want to Its nobodys business Uh, not really Had this actually been the 1950s, an accused Communist would have been everybodys business This viewpoint was common even in the 1970s, when 48% of Americans believed Communists should not be allowed to give a speech, teach at a college, or have a book in a local library Movies that admit to time travel are somewhat enjoyable In Pleasantville, two modern teenagers help a 1950s town find passion and the freedom of ideas Every character who discovers an individualistic freedom such as sex or intellectual questioning instantly turns from black and white into color The film sinks into predictability once discrimination against the colored people begins Get it Other movies travel across cultures rather than time, but they promote the same message In 2002s Bend It Like Beckham, an Indian girl living in London wants to play soccer Her parents, already taken aback that their older daughter did not have an arranged marriage, want Jess to learn to cook and be a proper young lady The plot comes to a head when Jess must shuttle back and forth between a game and her sisters wedding By the end of the movie, Jess wants to join a professional womens soccer team and move to America Her parents, finally convinced that its right for Jess to follow her dreams, reluctantly agree The overall message of all of these movieswhether they travel in time or culturesis to rebel against restrictive social s Dont follow the rules do whatever makes you happy And sometimes you dont even need to travel The biggest box office draw in late 2004 and early 2005 was Meet the Fockers, the sequel to the highly successful comedy Meet the Parents The movie revolves around the culture clash between the conservative Byrnes family and the hippie Focker family The Fockers provide most of the comedy in the film, with their sex therapy business, their leather sandals, and their display of their sons ninth place ribbons because, they say, Its not about winningits about whats in your heart But by the end of the movie, the Fockers are not the ones who have been convinced to changeits the straitlaced Byrnes family who learns from them Mr Byrnes, played to crusty perfection by Robert De Niro, learns to loosen up and show emotion toward his daughter He also decides that it might be good for him and his wife to enjoy physical affection in their marriage, and he puts some of Mrs Fockers sex tips to good use Hippies may be laughable, but they teach us how to live No need to walk around all uptight like thatwhich you must be if youre not a hippie Im exaggerating a bit, but the movie does make it clear which life philosophy is correct, and its definitely Let It All Hang Out These movies dramatize two interlocking changes the fall of social rules and the rise of the individual As the individualistic viewpoint became prominent, concern with the opinions of others plummeted This chapter discusses the decline in the need for social approval, and the following two chapters document the ascendance of the individual self Over the last few decades, the entire nation has experienced the transformation parodied in an episode of The Simpsons, when Springfields usual Do What We Say Festival started, they say, in 1946 by German settlers is replaced with the new Do What You Feel Festival DO YOUR OWN THING Imagine you are seated at a table with six other people Four lines are drawn on a chalkboard at the front of the room a medium length target line along with line A, medium line B, short and line C, long Youre to say which of the lines is the same length as the target Youre all ready with the obvious answer of A, but the six others go first and say line C What do you do When Solomon Asch first performed this experiment in 1951, 74% of people gave the groups incorrect answer on at least one trial, and 28% did on the majority of trials People felt the need to conform to the group and not to stand out The study became one of the most famous in social psychology, taught in every class as an example of the social nature of human beings Yet some have pointed out that this was the essence of getting along in 1950s society, when no one wanted to be thought of as different But when researchers tried to replicate the study in 1980, they got completely different results few people conformed to the group any Apparently, it was no longer fashionable to go along with the group even when they were wrong The authors of the study concluded that the Asch study was a child of its time A similar thing happened when a psychologist tried to replicate the Milgram study, an early 1960s study finding that people would shock someone else at dangerous levels when told to do so by an authority figure In 2009, nearly twice as many men refused to obey the experimenters orders Throughout the 1970s, self help books and therapists actively encouraged people to flout social rules, telling readers they should stop caring about what others think A central chapter in the 1976 megabestseller Your Erroneous Zones, by Wayne Dyer, is called You Dont Need Their Approval The author argues that people can do anything they put their minds to, and that others opinions only get in the way Its probably no coincidence that both the cover and back of the book feature oversize pictures of the author, complete with a 1970s, powder blue, V neck shirt and the resulting display of male chest hair Dyer rants on and on about how courteous acts such as giving a wedding gift or attending a funeral are musterbation, his double entendre term for unnecessary social rules Dyer argues that seeking approval from parents, teachers, and bosses undermines self reliance and truth Needing approval is tantamount to saying Your view of me is important than my own opinion of myself, he writes Another self help book carries on the tradition with the title What You Think of Me Is None of My Business Unlike the Baby Boomers, who learned these new standards as adults, GenMe takes these attitudes for granted and always has Just be yourself is the central ethos of modern parenting In 1924, a group of sociologists did an extensive study of the citizens of a place they called Middletown later revealed as Muncie, Indiana When mothers were asked which traits they wanted their children to have, they named strict obedience, loyalty to church, and good manners In 1988, when the first wave of GenMe were young children, few mothers named these traits instead, they chose independence and tolerance Modern mothers might be gratified to learn that these values sank in In Growing Up Digital, an 11 year old girl says, I think the individual determines what is cool, and it is his or her opinion What is cool to one person might not be to another The days of conformity are over Danielle, 29, agrees I refuse to do something because its what everyone else is doing, or because its the socially acceptable thing to do at the time When I asked my undergraduate students to name the characteristics that best described their generation, the two most popular answers were independent and open minded GenMe has been taught these values since birthbeginning with the unique names bestowed upon them Like just about everyone else, Id noticed that baby names seemed to be getting stranger every year When my husband and I were naming our first child in 2006, I discovered the Social Security Administrations database of 325 million Americans names going back to the 1880s So I had to see if there was a generational change Sure enough, the parents of GenMeers, and GenMeers themselves, were likely than those in previous eras to give their children unique names so they could stand out instead of common names so they could fit in In 1950, 1 out of 3 boys received one of the top 10 names By 2012, less than 1 out of 10 did Girls receiving a common name dropped from 1 out of 4 to less than 1 out of 10 We also controlled the analyses for immigration and looked within states with low Latino populations, such as North Dakota and Mississippi, to make sure that ethnic changes didnt account for the effects, and they did not By 2012, new parentsthe majority of whom were GenMetook things a step further to proclaim their childs greatness The boys names that increased the most in popularity between 2011 and 2012 included Major, King, and Messiah Somewhat high expectations to put on a newborn As Jaden, 25, puts it, For my grandparents, questioning their religion, their countrys system of government, or what they ate was not acceptable The fear of standing out or being judged by others for their beliefs was strong My generation is much independent I pride myself on being a free and independent thinker My wish is to break down the walls that humans have socially constructed A book on generations in the workplace notes that todays young people were instructed to Never just do what an adult asks Always ask, Why Some people say this should be the label for the generationnot Generation Y, but Generation Why At times, this attitude can lead to the questionable idea that there are no rules, so you might as well make up your own In interviews of 18 to 23 year olds conducted in 2008 for his books Souls in Transition and Lost in Transition, Christian Smith found that most young Americans espouse moral individualism, believing that morality is a personal choice I have no other way of knowing what to do morally but how I internally feel Thats where my decisions come from From me, from inside of me, said one So should people follow rules for what the society says is right or wrong the researchers asked I think its your personal belief system, said another young person I dont think its anything like social norms or like that I think its just dependent on each person and their own beliefs and what they think is right or wrong Thus, it follows that everyone has his or her own individual moral views, and its not right to question someone elses view I guess what makes something right is how I feel about it, but different people feel different ways, so I couldnt speak on behalf of anyone else as to whats right and whats wrong, said one young man This moral individualism can easily become, as Smith puts it, a live and let die philosophy When asked if people have any moral responsibility or duty to help others, one young person replied, No, not really Would it be a problem if someone didnt want to help others asked the interviewer No They can help themselves Do they really need anyone else he replied So if someone asks for help, we dont have an obligation to them prodded the interviewer Yeah, its up to each individual, of course, the young adult asserted Smith concludes that most emerging adults seem unaware of any source of moral reasoning outside of themselves Instead the world consists of so many individuals, and each individual decides for themselves what is and isnt moral and immoral, Smith writes Morality is ultimately a matter of personal opinion Everyone should tolerate everyone else, take care of their own business, and hopefully get along This is the razors edge of modern individualism tolerance is great, but perhaps not when each individual is free to decide for himself which rules to follow, and helping others is rarely one of those rules What about all of the GenMeers who are serving in the military, and who served in Afghanistan and Iraq when we were all sitting safe at home Military service can certainly be an example of self sacrifice, duty, and collectivism However, the data suggest that GenMe service members are the exception, not the rule According to the Pew Center, only 2% of GenMe has served in the military, compared to 6% of GenX and 13% of Boomers Polls of 16 to 24 year olds conducted by the Department of Defense show that fewer now say they are likely to join the military 18% expressed interest in 2010, down from 26% in 1986 This is partially because many young people automatically rule out military service In a nationally representative sample of high school students, 2 out of 3 67% said they definitely wont join the military in 2012, up from 57% in 1976 This does not diminish the contributions of the GenMeers who do serve, but it contrasts them with the majority of their generation One upside to the individualistic attitude is lessened prejudice and discrimination Amanda, 22, says that one of the main lessons in her Girl Scout troop was being different is good Its a mantra GenMe has heard over and over They absorbed the lesson of tolerance with their baby foodnot just for race and religion, but for sexual orientation It also extends to beliefs, feelings, and all kinds of other intangibles Just about the only difference that wasnt good Someone who was prejudiced Thats exactly what appears in our recent analysis of data from the nationally representative General Social Survey Boomers set in motion strong trends toward tolerance of groups such as Communists, gays and lesbians, and those who oppose religion Generation Me continued those trends throughout the 2000s and 2010s, but diverged from Boomers in one major way they were less tolerant than Boomers toward someone who claimed that blacks are genetically inferior GenMe is thus the most tolerant generation in American historythe only group they will not tolerate are those who are intolerant themselves WHO CARES WHAT YOU THINK Not caring what others think may also explain the apparent decline in manners and politeness GenMeers do not believe there is one right way of doing things, and most were never taught the rules of etiquette When that means wearing white shoes after Labor Day and using whatever fork you want, no problem But most etiquette was developed to provide something often lacking in modern life respect for other peoples comfort Society has gotten increasingly callous and me centered, and were fed up with the results , says Corinne Gregory, founder of a class called the PoliteChild A high school teacher told me that she noticed her students dont clean up nicethey find it difficult not to swear and to speak formally when necessary They talk to older people and authority figures the same way they talk to their friends A business book relates the story of a company founder who visited one of his shops and asked a young employee how she was doing Well, a little hungover this morning, but okay, she replied A recent article related numerous stories of young job applicants lack of perspective, from answering their cell phones during the interview to bringing their parents Jaime Fall, vice president of the HR Policy Association, says GenMes mind set is Youre perfect just the way you aredo whatever youre comfortable doingan attitude that can backfire in interviews Life has gotten casual, observes Mara Swan, executive vice president at Manpower They dont realize the interview is a sales event It goes beyond mannerspeople today are less likely to follow all kinds of social rules Business professor John Trinkaus finds that fewer people now slow down in a school zone, and fewer observe the item limit in a supermarket express lane More people cut across parking lots to bypass stoplights In 1979, 29% of people failed to stop at a particular stop sign in a New York suburb, but by 1996 a stunning 97% of drivers did not stop at all In Trinkauss most ironic finding, the number of people who paid the suggested fee for lighting a candle at a Catholic church decreased from 92% to 25% between the late 1990s and 2006 In other words, 75% of people cheated the church out of money in the most recent observation Cheating is also rampant among students A 2008 study found that 95% of high school students said they had cheated That included 64% who have cheated on a test by copying from someone else or using crib notes The rest merely told classmates what would be on a test, but, according to researcher Donald McCabe, most students dont even count that as cheating Another survey found that 34% of high school students admitted to cheating on an exam in 1969, which rose to 61% in 1992 GenX and to an incredible 74% in 2002 the first wave of GenMe Fortunately, fewer in the second wave of GenMe, 51%, reported cheating on an exam in 2012 Of course, thats still the majority and may underestimate the actual number High levels of cheating continue into college a 2002 survey found that 80% of students at Texas AM University admitted to cheating a 2007 poll of students at 12 different colleges found that 67% admitted to cheating Although competition for grades may have fueled the increase, attitudes have shifted along with the behavior In a 2012 study of 25,000 high school students, 57% agreed that in the real world, successful people do what they have to do to win, even if others consider it cheating In other words, the majority believed that the ends justified the means McCabe has found this attitude especially prevalent in business schools, characterized by a get it done, damn the torpedoes, succeed at all costs mentality According to my research, McCabe wrote in Harvard Business Review, the mind set of most MBAsbottom lineis to get the highest GPA possible, regardless of the means After all, the students with the highest GPAs get the best shot at the six figure jobs This breakdown in consideration and loyalty, and the increase in cheating, reaches all the way to the top Business scandals, such as those at WorldCom and Enron, demonstrated that many people have little problem with breaking rules and telling lies in an attempt to make money The mortgage meltdown of the late 2000s was a quite spectacular example of this as well, with banks continuing to get rich as ordinary Americans lost jobs and had their homes foreclosed In psychology and medicine, several researchers were recently shown to have published dozens of papers based on fraudulent data Even honest businesses disregard other time tested social rules, such as loyalty to employees Companies are now likely to raid pension funds and engage in mass layoffs to prop up a sinking stock price Others ship jobs overseas if it will save money Downsizing and outsourcing are the modern corporate equivalents of rudenessand a lot devastating Because GenMeers grew up with this kind of ruthlessness, it should not surprise us that they think little of some occasional homework copying It also suggests that the corporations of the future are going to need much stricter oversight to make sure that cheating and scams are kept to a minimum Cheating on tests easily translates to cheating on the balance sheet Expect to see laws like Sarbanes Oxley that ask corporations to prove that they are not cheating their stockholders Even with these laws, stock reports, research, and articles will have to be taken with a grain of saltin an increasingly competitive world, the temptation to cheat will be ever stronger for GenMe CALL ME BETH Boomers laid claim to the phrase question authority during the 1960s But GenMe doesnt just question authoritythey disregard it entirely Older generations trusted God, the church, government, and elders, says Kevin, 22 I have questioned things and people that earlier generations never would have thought to This is the eventual outcome of increased informality and the loosening of social rules, and many people would rightly argue that questioning things is good Sometimes traditions are outmoded and need challenging But sometimes GenMe takes the questioning of authority a little too far Education professor Maureen Stout tells the story of a young man in her class who did not turn in his research paper After a lot of excuses and arguments he finally came out with it, Stout writes He believed he was entitled to do just as he pleased and refused to recognize my authority, as the instructor, to determine what the assignments in the class should be It was as simple as that Former journalist Peter Sacks related his frustration with the community college students he taught in his second career, observing that they seemed uncomfortable with the idea that my knowledge and skills were important or even relevant Student after student balked when he corrected their essays, several complaining that his comments were just your opinion I recognized this phrase immediately, as Id heard it over and over from my own students I heard this complaint even when I corrected obvious errors such as run on sentences and incorrect punctuation, things that were clearly not a matter of opinion Even multiple choice tests werent free from this kind of challenge In one class, I decided it might be a good idea to review the correct answers to exam questionsit would be a way to correct misconceptions and help the students learn, I thought Almost immediately, several students began to argue with me about the questions, claiming that the answers they had chosen were right Since there wasnt a grading mistake, I was forced to explain again why the answers were correct, but they continued to argue It was the worst class Id ever had After it was over, an older studentwho had not been one of the arguerscame up to me and said with disbelief, Twenty years ago when I got my first degree, we never questioned teachers like that Apparently I was not alone In a recent survey of college faculty, 61% reported that students had verbally disrespected you or challenged your authority during class Sixty five percent said a student had continuously rolled his her eyes, frowned, or otherwise showed disdain while you were teaching Many students have found their cell phones ringing during classan honest mistakebut the new twist is to answer and conduct a conversation Sixty one percent of professors said theyd experienced this They were the lucky ones 24% said they had received hostile or threatening communications e mails, letters, phone messages from a student, and 29% said a student yelled or screamed at them New teaching philosophies sometimes explicitly acknowledge facultys lack of authority When Sacks, the community college professor, complained to a colleague about the lack of respect he experienced, she advised him to adopt the informal approach that she used In her first class, she always announced, I have some expertise and you have some expertise My job is to facilitate this process And please call me Beth The message We are all equals here I might have education and years of work experience, but that doesnt mean I know any than you This is a lot of the reason for the crumbling of authority and the new acceptance of questioning those in charge This can have benefits for the free exchange of ideas and engaged student learning, but clearly has downsides as well This new democracy in education and the workplace has been energized by the new informality in dress and names While the boss was once Mr Smith or Mrs Jones, bosses are now Mike or Linda Mr and Mrs sound too stiff and formaland old fashioned When were all on a first name basis, the specter of authority takes yet another step back into the shadows of a previous era That can bring us closer, but it can also set the stage for disrespect and conflict The curriculum reflects this lack of a central authority as well It is no longer enough to teach only the classics these are now known as DWMs Dead White Males Few academics still agree that there is a canon of Western literature that all students should learn Instead, students must take classes teaching a variety of perspectives, in which the works of women and minorities are also covered Whether you agree or disagree with this multicultural approach to education, its clear that we no longer answer to one definite authority There are many opinions, and each is considered valuable Though this has many advantages, it does mean that people will be much less likely to conform to societal rulesafter all, which rules would they follow Which culture or society is right GenMe is taught that none of them is, or all of them are Unless its the Internet Like most people old enough to remember a pre Internet world, I marvel that we ever got along without it How did we find movie showtimes in the early 1990s Oh, yeah, that weird recording where a teenager with acting aspirations would read off the movies and times As fantastic as the Internet is for research, it also democratizes the sources of information Suddenly, you dont have to write a textbook or have a column in a major newspaper for thousands of people to read your wordsjust put up a Web page or a blog, and eventually someone, and maybe even lots of people, will stumble across it In this environment, there is no authority information is free, diffuse, and comes from everyone Whether it is correct is another matter In many Internet situations, you can abandon social roles entirely Want to be a different age or sex Go ahead As a famous New Yorker cartoon showing two dogs in conversation puts it, On the Internet, nobody knows youre a dog Parental authority also isnt what it used to be Parents are no longer eager to be parents They want to love and guide their children as a trusted friend, says family studies professor Robert Billingham Chicago area parent Richard Shields says that his 17 year old son is his best friend He prefers them to have fun together rather than impose strict rules or discipline Its better for them to see our values and decide to gain them for themselves, he says This also means that children play a much larger role in family decisions The kids who chose their own outfits as preschoolers have grown into teenagers who help their parents choose which car to buy or even where to live A Chicago Sun Times article interviewed a large group of teens and their families, finding one where a teenage daughter helped her father decide on a new job, and another where the two teenage kids make all of the home decorating and electronics purchasing decisions Forty percent of teens see their opinions as very important in making family decisions In an earlier era of greater parental authority, that percentage would have been close to zero One familys two daughters convinced their parents to buy a second car I always stress to my girls to be opinionated, said Christine Zapata, the girls mother I guess that sort of backfires on me sometimes I wonder what will happen when this generation have their own children Will they continue the move toward lesser parental authority or insist that they retain the authority they have grown accustomed to If GenMe teaches our own children to be individualistic as well, we may have a full scale battle of the wills once our kids become teenagers themselves BEING DIFFERENT IS GOOD, EVEN WHEN YOURE GETTING MARRIED As one of societys most long lived traditions, marriage and weddings illustrate the move away from social rules better than anything else In 1957, 80% of people said that those who didnt marry were sick, neurotic, or immoral Now, when and whether you marry is considered a personal choice Many do not in 2012, 41% of babies in the United States were born to unmarried womencompared to 5% in 1960 Among women under 30 who gave birth in 2009, the majority were unmarried The social rule that you should be married before you have a baby has all but fallen by the wayside Many of these couples live together, but 39% of cohabitating couples break up within the first five years of a childs life compared to 13% of those who are married Art has imitated life, with single mothers portrayed often on TV, with reactions shifting from outrage in the 1980s Murphy Brown to barely a peep in the 2000s Friends By 2013, the sitcom The New Normal portrayed a gay couple having a child using a surrogatejust as several gay celebrities such as Elton John and Neil Patrick Harris have done Overall, this generation is much likely to accept that there are many ways to make a family When nearly half of babies are born to single parents, who has time to criticize them all Whom you marry is also much up to the individual My parents, a Catholic and a Lutheran though both white and alike in every other way , had a mixed marriage when they wed in 1967 People in my mothers Minnesota hometown whispered about it behind cupped hands for weeks Now this religious difference would be considered too minor to even be discussed Interracial marriage has become much common, than doubling since 1980 and accounting for than 1 in 7 US marriages in 2010 Yet until the Supreme Court struck down miscegenation laws in 1967, whites and blacks could not legally marry each other in sixteen states The last antimiscegenation law was not officially repealed until November 2000, in Alabama Now these unions are everywhere, and between almost all ethnicities and races My next door neighbors for three years were a Mexican American man and his half Jewish, half Italian wife, and Ive lost count of the number of Asian white marriages among people I know Almost half of Asian women will marry a white man In 2012, 86% of Americansincluding 93% of GenMeagreed I think its all right for blacks and whites to date each other, up from 48% in 1987 Sixty percent of twentysomethings said they had dated someone from a different racial or ethnic background In 2009, only 36% of Boomers said that people of different races marrying one another has been a change for the better, compared to 60% of GenMe Asked if they would be comfortable with someone in their family marrying someone of a different race, 55% of Boomers said yes, compared to 85% of GenMe Many young people Ive talked to mention interracial dating as the biggest difference between them and their parents many of their peers date across racial lines, but their parents dont agree with this Several young women from Texas and North Carolina told me that if they dated a black man, their fathers would meet the poor guy at the door with a shotgun Yet most of GenMe finds this perplexing Who cares what race someone is In one survey, only 10% of white young people said that marrying someone from their own ethnic group was important however, 45% said it was important to their parents Of young Asian Americans, 32% said same ethnic group marriage was important to them, but 68% said it was important to their parents As YouTube star Kevin Wu, 19, said, My parents like to constantly remind me that when I grow up I have to marry an Asian wife Which is okay, I like Asian women, but I dont like narrowing my options Girls are like a bag of MMstheyre all different colors on the outside, but on the inside, theyre all the same, and they all taste good He continues, No one opens a bag of MMs and goes, hey, Im only eating the yellow ones You know why Because thats racist I think the only way we can stop racism is to have interracial babies Interracial marriage is likely to become even common in the future as and young people meet and date people from different backgrounds When we marry our other race, other religion, and possibly same sex partners, we dont follow all of the wedding rules of previous generations In the mid 1960s, Brides magazine insisted that the only correct colors for wedding invitations are white, ivory, or cream, with absolutely no decorations such as borders, flower sprays, and so on In other words, your invitation had to look just like everyone elses Now people use wedding invitations in every possible theme and colorand wording When my parents lived near Dallas, they received a wedding invitation with a picture of a cowboy and cowgirl inviting guests to cmon over for a big weddin to do The reply card choices were Yes, well be there with our boots on and Shucks, we cant make it People are bending tradition in other ways Some brides with male friends have a man of honor, and some grooms have best women Another trend encourages brides to let each bridesmaid choose the style of her gownits no longer required that they all wear the same dress, a rule now seen as overly conformist Many couples write their own vows, wanting a ceremony personalized to speak for their individual love The new trend in wedding photography is journalistic style the photographers capture moments as they happen, putting less emphasis on formal posing Weddings arent about rules any, but about individual expression Wedding gown designer Reem Acra says a bride should choose the look that encapsulates her personality She says, I always ask my brides, Who are you and what do you want to tell everybody Weddings, once governed by strict conventions for dress and behavior, now have few rules Its your wedding, so you can wear shorts or a bikini if you want to.THE CHURCH AND COMMUNITY OF THE INDIVIDUAL What does the move away from social rules mean for religion In Millennials Rising, Neil Howe and William Strauss predicted that those born in the 1980s and 1990s would be committed to religion than previous generations, part of Millennials returning America to duty, communalism, and rule following They cited the growing popularity of high school prayer circles and quoted a youth minister who observed that this group liked old fashioned religion Others have argued that GenMe has moved away from religious institutions, but still maintains a private religiosity and spirituality I wanted to find out whether this was true, so my coauthors and I examined six nationally representative surveys of Americans collected over time Our analysis included data on 8th and 10th gradersgroups too young to be included in previous studies of trends in religionand a sample of entering college students going back to 1966 the American Freshman Survey that at 10 million is the largest ongoing US survey with questions on religion We also analyzed a survey of 12th graders and two surveys of adults These massive datasets, with respondents aged 13 to 98, conveyed a clear conclusion Americans religious commitment has declined precipitously, especially since 2000 Most Americans still affiliate with a religion, but the number who do not is growing so quickly that they may soon be the majority The number of entering college students who named none as their religious affiliation tripled between 1983 and 2012 from 8% to 24% and doubled among 12th graders from 10% in the late 1970s to 20% in the 2010s The number who say they never attend religious services doubled between the 1970s and the 2010s More young teens are also growing up without religion in their lives 38% 8th graders in the 2010s compared to the early 1990s claim no religious affiliation and never attend religious services Assuming that earlier generations were just as religious as those in the 1970s, Generation Me is the least religious generation in American history Two mechanisms seem to be at work First, teens are being raised by nonreligious parents For example, four times as many college students in the 2010s versus the early 1970s said their mother did not affiliate with a religion Second, young people are leaving religion as they grow into young adulthood, and this tendency grew stronger over the generations In Soul Searching, his extensive survey of teens, Christian Smith found that intellectual skepticism was the main reason teens moved away from religion It didnt make any sense any, said one Too many questions that cant be answered, said another Others could not say exactly why they became less religious or said they simply lost interest It never seemed that interesting to me or It got kind of boring The flight from religion only accelerates during and after college In 2012, 30% of Americans 18 to 29 claimed no religious affiliationthree times as many as in 1972 Only 14% of 18 to 29 year olds attend religious services every week Among high school seniors, most of whom still live with their parents, the figure is only 30%, down from 40% in 1976 GenMeers religious participation is still low even after they have their own childrennearly four times as many Americans in their 30s claimed no religious affiliation in 2012 compared to 1972 Young people have also lost faith in religious institutions In the late 1970s, 62% of Boomer 12th graders thought that churches and religious organizations were doing a good job That slid to 53% in the 2010s One out of three Boomer students in the late 1970s had already donated money to a religious organization that number was nearly cut in half by 2012 to 17% GenMeers increasingly see religion negatively, so it makes sense that they are less willing to give their money to support it In some cases, its because GenMes fundamental belief in equality which well cover in chapter 7 and free sexuality chapter 6 is at odds with the teachings of many religions Starting in middle school we got the lessons about why premarital sex was not okay, why active homosexuality was not okay, and growing up in American culture, kids automatically pushed back on those things, said Melissa Adelman, 30, in an interview with National Public Radio A large part of the reason I moved away from Catholicism was because without accepting a lot of these core beliefs, I just didnt think that I could still be part of that community Even the pope has shown he understands this new reality in 2013, Pope Francis said of issues such as gay marriage and birth control, It is not necessary to talk about these issues all the time We have to find new balance Some have argued that Americans have moved away from religious institutions but are still privately religious or spiritual That does not appear to be the case The most stunning statistic comes from the nationally representative General Social Survey Among those 18 to 29 years old in 1994 GenX , only 2% never prayed By 2012, 26% of 18 to 29 year olds GenMe never prayed Even when the question was asked as prayer meditation, recent numbers were lower 37% of college students never prayed or meditated in 2005, compared to 33% just nine years earlier in 1996 The number of high school students who said that religion is not important in their lives increased 56% from 14% in 1976 to 22% in 2012 Belief in God has also taken a hit In 1994, 56% of 18 to 29 year olds said they were sure that God exists by 2012 that had shrunk to 44% Between GenX and GenMe, belief in God went from winning the election to losing it So its not just that GenMe has moved away from religious institutions they are also moving away from private religious belief and practice The idea that religion is being replaced by spirituality also doesnt hold up The percentage of college students who described themselves as above average in spirituality declined from 59% in 1997 to 36% in 2012 When Christian Smith asked teens about spirituality in 2008, most did not even know what the term meant What do you mean, spiritual seeking many asked Smith concluded that few American teens are spiritual but not religious The decline in religious commitment and belief is one of the few generational trends that differs significantly by race and social class At least among high school students, the decline has hardly touched black GenMeonly slightly fewer attend church and profess a religious affiliation now compared to the 1970s So its mostly the white kids who are singing losing my religion Butperhaps surprisinglyits not the rich white kids In the high school sample, religious participation declined the most among working class youth whose fathers did not attend college Even among the majority of young people who affiliate with a religion, their beliefs are often rooted in what Christian Smith labels therapeutic individualism Within this system, spirituality is re narrated as personal integration, subjective feeling, and self improvement toward individual health and personal well beingand no longer has anything to do with, for example, religious faith and self discipline toward holiness or obedience Even teens who identified as religious were, as Smith put it, incredibly inarticulate about their faith, their religious beliefs and practices, and its meaning or place in their lives Many could not say why they affiliated with a religion if they did, they said that they prayed for things they wanted For many GenMe teens, he observes, God is treated as something like a cosmic therapist or counselor, a ready and competent helper who responds in times of trouble but who does not particularly ask for devotion or obedience As a 14 year old Catholic boy from Ohio put it, Faith is very important, I pray to God to help me with sports and school and stuff and he hasnt let me down yet, so I think it helps you In Emerging Adulthood, Jeffrey Arnett describes the belief systems of young people as highly individualized, which he calls make your own religions Many dont adhere to a specific belief system because, as one said, I believe that whatever you feel, its personal Everybody has their own idea of God and what God is You have your own personal beliefs of how you feel about it and whats acceptable for you and whats right for you personally When Smith asked one young woman how she decided which interpretation of Scripture was correct, she simply said, My own A young man said he evaluated different religious claims with pretty much just my authority These beliefs seem to be growing in a 2013 poll, 3 out of 4 American Catholics said they were likely to follow my own conscience on difficult moral questions rather than follow the teachings of the Pope Many young people abandon organized religion due to its restrictive rules Saturday nights I go out and hang out, and I dont have to necessarily worry about getting up to go to church in the morning Its just a lot easier, I think, to leave certain things out, one teen said in Souls in Transition Interviewed in Emerging Adulthood, Dana said she attended Jewish services growing up, but stopped going when she got older because there was this pressure from the people at the synagogue to be, like, kosher, and I just didnt like having anyone telling me what my lifestyle should be Beth was raised Catholic but by adulthood came to believe that humans all have natural, animalistic urges she stopped believing because feeling guilty made me unhappy Charles grew up Episcopalian but stopped attending services because I realized I was not being encouraged to think for myself It is, literally, This is black This is white Do this Dont do that And I cant hang with that Many churches with growing memberships are fundamentalist Christian denominations that do require strict adherence However, these churches promote a personalized form of religion Many fundamentalist Christian faiths ask adherents to believe that Jesus Christ is your personal savior and that He has a plan for your life Many speak about having a personal relationship with God Rick Warren, author of the popular Christian book The Purpose Driven Life, writes, Accept yourself Dont chase after other peoples approval God accepts us unconditionally, and in His view we are all precious and priceless These denominations teach that ones personal faith guarantees acceptance into heaven, not the good works you perform and the way you treat others which traditionally defined a proper spiritual outlook and its rewards Even if you are a murderer, you will be saved if you accept Jesus as your personal savior Most adherents strive to live good lives, but personal beliefs are considered important Churches are not the only group hurting for members As Robert Putnam documents in Bowling Alone, memberships in community groups have declined by than one fourth since the 1970s Groups such as the Elks, the Jaycees, and the PTA have all seen memberships fall Putnam labels the trend civic disengagement and concludes that it is linked to generational shifts The title of his book comes from the observation that people used to bowl in organized leagues but now bowl alone or in informal groups Young people would rather do their own thing than join a group Across the board, youth are now less likely to approve of or be interested in large institutions such as government, mass media, and religious organizations In 1976, 36% of high school seniors said they had already or would probably write to a public official, but by 2012 that had sunk to 19% Twice as many 41% vs 20% said they probably wont And this is in a time when its easy to fill out an online form on a government websiteyet fewer young people are interested in contacting public officials than in the days when that meant looking up an address at the library, typing a letter, addressing it, putting a stamp on it, and mailing it GenMeers are also less likely to trust their neighbors, and less likely to believe that the world is a welcoming place In 1976, 46% of high school students said that most people can be trusted versus you cant be too careful in dealing with people By 2012, just 16% of teens said they trusted others In 2012, 47% of high school students said that most people are just looking out for themselves rather than try ing to be helpful, and 49% said that most people would try to take advantage of you if they got a chance These were all time or near all time lows in the 36 year history of the survey GenMe trusts no one, suggesting a culture growing ever toward disconnection and away from close communities Trusting no one and relying on yourself is a self fulfilling prophecy in an individualistic world where the prevailing sentiment is Do unto others before they do it to you THE WORLDWIDE CONFESSIONAL Maria, 20, says her mothers motto is Other people dont have to know about the bad things that happen in the family Few in GenMe share that belief Many think that confession is good for the soul, and this no longer means whispering to a priest in a dark booth It means telling everyone about your experiences and feelings, no matter how distasteful When I asked my students to relate true stories for an extra credit assignment, I assured them they could tell their own story in the third person if they didnt want me to know it was actually about them Not one took me up on the offer instead, I got myriad first person stories, with names attached, about teenage sex, drug abuse, psychological disorders, ugly divorces, and family disagreements One student wrote about losing her virginity at age 14 to a man who had only eight toes So many students wrote candid essays about sex that I finally took it off the list of possible topics because I had than enough stories None of the students cared if I knew details of their personal lives that other generations would have kept as carefully guarded secrets This applies in spoken conversation as well Jenny, 22, is an undergraduate at a small college in the South When we met at a psychology conference, I asked about her career plans Within two minutes, she was telling me about her broken engagement and how her former fianc had been depressed This was all done without pretense or embarrassment In a mid 2000s survey of men, 62% of those 18 to 24 said they were comfortable discussing their personal problems with others, compared to only 37% of those age 65 and older Many older people are amazed that young people will readily share their salary numbers with others, the disclosure of which once carried a strong taboo GenMe is also much open about emotions In my generation, as opposed to my parents or my grandparents, we are told to express our feelings and anger and sadness about our surroundings and not to hold them in, says Ashley, 24 Shes not sure this is a good thing, however We are an emotionally spoiled generation It can lead to dramatic emotions when you are always discussing, sharing, analyzing them as our generation is led to feel they should do But thats not the message young people receive from most of the culture Even sharing feelings that might muddle a situation is encouraged In an episode of the teen show Dawsons Creek, one character does not want to confess her romantic feelings to her former boyfriend, who is now dating someone else If it broke my heart, I have no right to say so, she says Her roommate cant believe what shes hearing Clearly meant to be the shows Voice of Reason, she announces, You have the right to say anything you want when it comes to how you feel TMI COMING UP Health issues are also the subject of much honest and open discussion Not that long ago, it was not acceptable to talk about health problems, particularly womens health problems I once asked my grandfather why he and my grandmother had had only one child Too expensive, he said, though I knew he had made a good living When I told my mother about this, she said my grandmother hadnt been able to have any children I asked why All she ever said was that she had female problems, my mother said It was a term Id heard beforefor a certain generation, female problems was the closest anyone would ever come to uttering words such as breast cancer, hysterectomy, endometriosis, uterus, infertility, or even menstrual period These days, few people have qualms about using any of these terms, especially when talking with family or close friendsor even with total strangers Women on Internet message boards discuss everything, and I mean everything not just morning sickness, but miscarriages, PMS, the precise appearance of cervical fluid, the color of menstrual blood brown or red today , DTD doing the deed , and BD baby dancing with their husbands How often, and in what position, is also openly discussed, including any problems that might have arisenor, sometimes, have not arisen wink Common phrases on these boards include TMI coming up or Sorry if TMI TMI, for those of you who are not GenMe, means Too Much Information also called an overshare Im convinced the phrase was coined because there is so little that is now TMI, but we need a way to warn people before things become gross After warning about the TMI, everyone goes ahead and posts the details anyway These boards are extremely helpful as they provide an enormous amount of information and support to women going through difficult life experiences Theyre wonderful thingsbut an earlier generation of women would never have dreamed of discussing these topics in a public forum, and maybe not even with their closest friends We live in a much open age Now we have not only tampon commercials, but ads for condoms, personal lubricants such as K Y jelly, and erection drugs my favorite the one where the guy throws the football through the hole in the tire swing So subtle Young celebrities seem to love the overshare just as much as GenMes less famous members When Im alone, I do masturbate a lot, notes James Franco We have sex like Kenyan marathon runners, boasts Olivia Wilde Oversharing is also the name of the game on Facebook and Twitter Although people eventually learned that posting everything on Facebook was not the best idea pictures of you drunk at a party no job offer , social media still provides a much public forum for our lives than previous generations had A survey by babycenter.com found that half of new mothers sent text messages or updated their Facebook profiles while they were in laboronce among the most private of moments Cell phones, with their ability to take pictures and instantly send them, provide another way to overshare snap a nude picture of yourself to entice your crush A recent survey found that 28% of 15 and 16 year olds had sent a nude picture of themselves by e mail or textand 57% had been asked to Its so common it even has a clever name sexting GENERATION DIRECT GenMes openness extends to all kinds of communications at work and at home Some older business managers complain that young people today are too blunt These managers say that young employees ask for instant feedback thats straightforward and unapologetic, and give it in return Some managers are surprised at young peoples willingness to critique the performance of older peopleits a combination of the eroding respect for authority and the compulsive honesty of the younger generation In a 2009 survey, GenMeers were much likely than other generations to tell their manager they were looking for another job Young people see their directness as an asset In one episode of the teen soap The O.C., 16 year old Seth makes a sarcastic comment, after which his father tells him, Watch your mouthI was trying to be polite You might want to give it a try Seth replies, No, thanks, Id rather be honest So, to some GenMeers, if youre not true to yourself, and you conform to someone elses rules, you might be seen as dishonest or a victim of peer pressureand avoiding that is important than being polite For GenMe not being yourself equates to being somehow unwhole and false Kim, 21, says her mother worries too much about other peoples opinions her mother says Kim should be ashamed when she doesnt take care with her appearance Kim disagrees She should be ashamed of herself for being fake One student of mine took this principle a little too far Aaron, 22, was the kind of student a teacher dreadswell intentioned and even sweet, but unable to keep his unorthodox opinions to himself By the end of the term, the other students were openly hostile toward him because he interrupted the class so many times He didnt see things this way, however You might view me as a rebel without a cause, he wrote But I do have a cause It is being true to me When I am true to myself I feel confident and content When I am untrue to myself I feel uneasy and fake I have to be honest with myself as well as others In other words, its important to be true to yourself than to be liked Overall, GenMe appreciates directness The older generations are so cautious and political in the way they phrase everything that half the time I dont know what they mean, said one young employee The prevalence of texting might have something to do with this when youre typing quickly, being blunt is easier You also arent there to see the immediate reaction on the other persons face Smartphones are also one of the main offenders when bluntness gives way to rudenessas you know if youve ever tried to have a conversation with someone who keeps looking down to text on his phone Even this pales in comparison to whats done anonymously online There, comments sections are filled with statements that often cross the line from blunt to incredibly rude Sitting in front of their computers, commenters seem to forget that they are communicating with other people, and about other people, treating others with a complete lack of respect For example, the new term fat shaming describes what happens when a celebrity is photographed showing even a little too much belly or thighthe Internet promptly lights up with overly direct statements about how she might want to lose a few pounds Some dont even have to be anonymous to be cruel Julia, 20, says, I hate Facebook and other social networks They have shaped my generation by making it easy to attack people and get away with it Jimmy Kimmel now has celebrities read mean tweets users have posted about them, a sign of just how widespread the phenomenon has become Others hide behind e mail When psychologist Bella DePaulo was publicizing her book Singled Out, someone e mailed her, I love your ideas, but with a mug like that I beg of you not to reproduce Please remain single and consider a tubal ligation just to be safe I dont know if this deplorable hater was GenMebut I do think its unlikely she would have said such a thing to DePaulo in person Technology has in some ways made us meaneror at least given us an anonymous venue for being so % % These days, saying anything you want often includes words you might not want to say in front of your grandmother Whether youre for or against this trend, swearing is clearly just not the shocker it used to be The relaxation of the rules against swearing mirrors the same social trend as all of the other examples herewe swear because we dont care as much about what other people think Sixties radicals threw around words like motherfucker because they knew it would shock the older generation They were declaring their independence and showing that they didnt care if people disapproved of them Some shock value still exists, but many young people swear now just because thats the way they talk It proves the adage that fuck is the most versatile word in the English language, since it can be a noun, a verb, or an adjective Or even an adverb, as in Mr Bigs famous line in Sex and the City Absofuckinglutely The Google Books database proves the point the word fuck was eight times frequent in American books in 2008 versus 1960 , shit three times as frequent, and ass four times as frequent The number of four letter words now heard regularly in movies and on televisionor, actually, five and three letter wordshas caused much public hand wringing Network TV began allowing bitch in the 1980s, and the 1990s brought the best gift late night comedians ever got the ability to say ass on TV David Letterman liked this so much he started a segment called big ass ham just so he could say ass over and over Characters on HBO and in R rated movies utter four letter words as if they were being paid for each usage In December 2013, the movie The Wolf of Wall Street set a new record for uses of f bombs in a major motion picture 544 People against this trend toward vulgar language often use an argument that should now sound familiar American culture has become crude, rude, and socially unacceptable Whatever happened to politeness and manners Nobody cares what anyone thinks any I say % them Just kidding CONFORMITY AND THE NEED FOR SOCIAL APPROVAL Do you like to gossip sometimes Have you ever pretended to be sick to get out of doing something Have you ever insisted on having your own way Before you vote, do you carefully check the qualifications of each candidate Are you always polite Are you always willing to admit it when youve made a mistake If you answered no to the first three questions and yes to the next three, you have a high need for social approval You want other people to see you as a good person, and you place high value on conventional behavior What other people think matters a lot to you You are also probably not a member of Generation Me These questions are from a measure called the Marlowe Crowne Social Desirability Scale The scale measures a persons need for social approval, and people who score high on it, according to the scale authors, display polite, acceptable behavior and follow conventional, even stereotyped, cultural norms My student Charles Im and I analyzed 241 studies that gave this questionnaire to college students and children, 40,745 individuals in all Not surprisingly, scores on the need for social approval have slid downward since the 1950s The average college student in 2001 scored lower than 62% of college students in 1958 Put another way, the 2001 student scored at the 38th percentile compared to his or her 1958 peers These percentiles work just like those on standardized testsimagine your child taking a test and scoring at the 50th percentile one time and the 38th percentile another time You would consider her average the first time, but be fairly concerned about her slipping performance the next Similar results appeared on two other measures of social approvalthe L and K scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory In a cross temporal meta analysis of 117 samples including 63,706 college students, GenMe scored lower on both scales, suggesting they were less concerned with the impression they were making and less defensive about how they would be seen The average college student in 2007 scored lower than 79% of 1940s college students on the K scale the 21st percentile , and 62% lower on the L scale the 38th percentile I also wondered if children would show the same resultswas it only college students who changed, or were kids also seeking social approval less Sure enough, the results were similar Children ages 9 to 12 showed rapidly decreasing needs for social approval For example, the average 1999 GenMe fifth or sixth grader scored at the 24th percentile, or lower than 76% of kids in the 1960s This is an even larger change than for the college studentsyou would be pretty upset if your child came home with a standardized test score in the 24th percentile These results suggested that the decline in social approval was pervasive even children as young as nine showed the generational trend, with kids from GenMe scoring lower than kids from earlier generations The Baby Boomers began this trend The data show that the need for social approval reached an all time low in the late 1970s to the early 1980s This is not that surprisingthe Boomers practically invented youth rebellion in the 1960s By the 1970s, the rebellion was mainstream, and the defiance of authority an accepted social value Take the line yippie radical Jerry Rubin used in the late 1970sif someone called him on the phone when he was, umm, otherwise occupied, he would say honestly, Cant talk to you nowIm masturbating The 1980s returned society to a somewhat conventional existence Slowly, men cut their hair except for Ponch and Jon on CHiPs , pant legs went from flagrantly bell bottom to normal at least until bell bottoms resurgence around 1996 , and pot smoking declined It was not quite as necessary to rebel to fit inwhich was always a rather ironic notion GenMe turned this trend around to an extent, no longer thinking of social approval as something to be completely disdained But the need for social approval did not even come close to the levels of the 1950s and 1960sthose days were gone forever A new movement dawned during the 1980s, however, a trend that GenMe would take to new heights, leaving Boomers in the dust Generation Me believes, with a conviction that approaches boredom because it is so undisputed, that the individual comes first Its the trend that gives the generation its name, and I explore it in the next two chapters.An informed, rollicking look at the epidemic narcissism, illusory optimism, and anxiety and depression of today s younger Americans Compelling reading Generation Me is marvelously written with a sparkling humor David G Myers, author of The American Paradox Spiritual Hunger in an Age of PlentyTwenge does a huge, decidedly un GenX amount of research and replaces hunches with actual data L ucid and entertainingboldrefreshing Chris Colin, author of What Really Happened to the Class of 93 Millennials The Me Generation Time I am about to do what old people have done throughout history call those younger than me lazy, entitled, selfish and shallow But studies statistics quotes from respected Generation Wikipedia A generation is all of the born living at same time, regarded collectivelyIt can also be described as, average period, generally considered thirty years, during which children are grow up, become adults, begin their own In kinship terminology, it a structural term designating parent child relationship X or Gen demographic cohort following baby boomers preceding MillennialsThere no precise dates for when starts ends Demographers researchers typically use birth years ranging early mid s Wealth About Wealth multi platform project that Lauren Greenfield has been working on since , being released in as museum exhibition, photographic monograph, documentary film an extraordinary visual our growing obsession with wealth Next Science Standards THE THREE DIMENSIONS OF SCIENCE LEARNING Within Next Standards NGSS there three distinct equally important dimensions learning science Why by Zadie Smith New York Review Jesse Eisenberg Mark Zuckerberg, founder Facebook, Rooney Mara his girlfriend Erica Social Network How long these days must Zuckerberg only nine between us but somehow doesn t feel way Sushi Browser Multi Panel Browser panel Split divided dragging tab towards corner It right click menu well Have Smartphones Destroyed Atlantic ve researching generational differences starting was year doctoral student psychology Typically, characteristics come define A Japan Faces Lonely Death Nov postwar Japan, single minded focus rapid economic growth helped erode family ties Now, elderly Japanese dying alone Apple iPod Nano GB Slate th Pink MKMVLL Certified Refurbished The YEAR END TIME GENERATION Eclipse century interviews Revelation signs website pastor Biltz GREAT AMERICAN SOLAR ECLIPSE This Prophecy Yang Lan, journalist entrepreneur who called Oprah China, offers insight into next young Chinese citizens urban, connected via microblogs alert injustice Fragile Reason Bad policy paranoid parenting making kids too safe succeed Lenore Skenazy Jonathan Haidt December issue view article Digital Edition School Shooting Has Had Enough After shooting Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School, teens Parkland, Florida, taken gun reform debate full force York New TED expected outnumber Boomers Millennials cusp surpassing Baby nation largest adult generation, according population projections US Census Bureau As July latest date estimates available Millennials, whom we ages Midlife Crisis Women Oprah hitting women crisis impacts every aspect lives relationships careerAbout Jean Dr Twenge Twenge M Twenge, Professor Psychology San Diego State University, author scientific publications books Jean PhD widely published professor University Her research appeared Time, USA Today, Times, Washington Post, she featured Good Morning America, CBS Narcissism Epidemic Living Age of Entitlement W Keith Campbell FREE shipping qualifying inflated self everywhere Public figures say makes them stray wives Parents teach dressing T shirts Princess More comfortable online out partying, post safer, physically, adolescents ever they re brink mental health Increases Depressive Symptoms, Suicide Related Corresponding Author Department Psychology, Campanile Drive, Diego, CA E mail jtwenge sdsu edu ContributionsJ developed study concept design J G Martin analyzed data Joiner L Reflecting narcissism Imagine country where everyone acts like reality show contestant obsessed power, status appearance, manipulating others personal gain m here win, not make friends, would national motto society high crime rates Research says today narcissistic had studying esteem teamed up Campbell, specialises narcissism They joined forces investigate whether We Need Talk Kids Oct These increases huge possibly unprecedented, iGen, examines how super known Y Y, ZThere this demographers ending Expatiate Definition Expatiate Merriam Webster naturalist her willingness expatiate any number issues relating wildlife environment Do You Suffer From Decision Fatigue Aug very act decisions depletes ability So navigate world endless choice Marie August American psychologist differences, including work values, life goals, speed development She author, consultant, public speaker All Stories iGen Jasu Hu Have Official Publisher Page Simon Schuster PhD, hundred two based jeantwenge Twitter Webinar Tomorrow pm ET PT Interview OLCAccelerate keynote SDSU We ll chat approach digital perspective OLC Conversation articles several trade topic mostly recently Today Super Connected Growing Most Popular Presented Michael S Williamson Post Goodreads frequently gives talks seminars teaching dataset milli Look new book appears accident free drivers socially anxious Select All book, proposes unhappy because smartphones iGen Book highly readable entertaining first look members children, teens, adults Today Published April Free Press, division Schuster, Inc Seeing Narcissists Everywhere Times finds fault culture United States, parents praise special Credit Sandy Huffaker Times Ways To Spot Narcissist HuffPost Chances are, you encountered narcissist know, friend manages revert conversation back himself colleague always bragging having Generation Me - Revised and Updated: Why Today's Young Americans Are More Confident, Assertive, Entitled--and More Miserable Than Ever Before (English Edition) eBook: Jean M. Twenge: Amazon.fr: Amazon Media EU S.à r.l.

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